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?? tï¿½i NCKH ??t gi?i Ba H?i ngh? SV NCKH khoa Ng? V?n n?m 2010:
NH?NG ??I M?I NGH? THU?T TI?U THUY?T C?A Lï¿½ L?U TRONG ï¿½CHUY?N Lï¿½NG CU?Iï¿½ RENOVATIONS OF LE LUUï¿½S NOVEL FEATURES INï¿½CUOI VILLAGEï¿½S TALEï¿½ SVTH: V? Xuï¿½n Tri?u L?p 06CVH2, Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng GVHD: PGS.TS. Nguy?n Phong Nam Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng
Tï¿½M T?T B?ng nh?ng s? ph?n riï¿½ng, cu?c ??i riï¿½ng, qua ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½, Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ soi chi?u hi?n th?c d??i nhi?u chi?u kï¿½ch khï¿½c nhau. Nh?ng trang ti?u thuy?t c?a ï¿½ng vï¿½ th?, ï¿½nh hï¿½o quang d??ng nh? nh?t d?n vï¿½ cï¿½ khi m?t h?n. Thay vï¿½o ?ï¿½ lï¿½ ch?t ??i t? c?a m?i s? ph?n, m?i cu?c ??i v?i nh?ng l?m lem ??i th??ng nh?t. Vï¿½ ??y chï¿½nh lï¿½ m?t trong nh?ng ?i?u m?i m? mï¿½ Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p cho n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i. ABSTRACT By its own destinies, personal lives in ï¿½Cuoi villageï¿½s taleï¿½, Le Luu has reflected the reality in many different dimensions. The halo of his novelï¿½s pages, therefore, seems to gradually fade and sometimes clear away. Instead, that is the privacy of its own destinies, personal lives with spattering of daily life. And that is one of the new things that Le Luu contributes to Vietnam novels in the innovation era. M? ??U * Lï¿½ do ch?n ?? tï¿½i K? t? sau n?m 1975, V?n h?c Vi?t Nam ??ng tr??c nhu c?u m? r?ng h?n n?a trong vi?c ph?n ï¿½nh m?i m?t cu?c s?ng ?a d?ng vï¿½ ph?c t?p, khuynh h??ng s? thi vï¿½ c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n nh?t d?n vï¿½ ???c thay th? b?i c?m h?ng ??i t? th? s?. Cï¿½c v?n ?? v? cu?c s?ng, giï¿½ tr? ??o ??c, ï¿½ th?c dï¿½n ch?, v? cï¿½i tï¿½iï¿½ ?ï¿½ tr? thï¿½nh ch? ?? n?i b?t khi?n cho v?n h?c cï¿½ng ??i m?i m?nh m?. Ng??i ta hï¿½nh dung l?i con ng??i, thay ??i cï¿½ch miï¿½u t?, s? d?ng ngï¿½n ng?, gi?ng ?i?u m?i. Tr??c th?c t? ??y bi?n ??ng c?a l?ch s?, ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ c?a Lï¿½ L?u ra ??i nh? m?t b?c tranh sinh ??ng, kh?c ho? chï¿½n th?c nh?ng thï¿½ng ngï¿½y ??t n??c trong th?i k? ??i m?i. Tï¿½m hi?u tï¿½c ph?m k? trï¿½n, ta s? hi?u thï¿½m v? th? lo?i ti?u thuy?t c?a m?t th?i k? v?n h?c sï¿½i ??ng. ??ng th?i qua ?ï¿½ hi?u ???c nh?ng ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p c?a nhï¿½ v?n cho n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam giai ?o?n nï¿½y. * L?ch s? v?n ?? nghiï¿½n c?u Nghiï¿½n c?u v? Lï¿½ L?u vï¿½ cï¿½c sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a ï¿½ng nï¿½i chung, ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ nï¿½i riï¿½ng cï¿½ nhi?u bï¿½i vi?t ??ng trï¿½n cï¿½c bï¿½o, t?p chï¿½. Nh?ng bï¿½i vi?t ?y h?u h?t ???c tï¿½c gi? tuy?n ch?n ??a vï¿½o cu?n T?p v?n c?a mï¿½nh m?t cï¿½ch khï¿½ ??y ??. Tiï¿½u bi?u cï¿½ m?t s? bï¿½i vi?t nh?: ï¿½Lï¿½ l?uï¿½ ï¿½ trï¿½ch Chï¿½n dung vï¿½ ??i tho?i c?a Tr?n ??ng Khoa; ï¿½Ti?u thuy?t Lï¿½ L?u th?i k? ??i m?iï¿½ c?a tï¿½c gi? ?? H?i Ninh ï¿½ * Ph?m vi ï¿½ ?ï¿½?i t???ng nghiï¿½n c?u D?a vï¿½o ??c ?i?m th? lo?i ti?u thuy?t vï¿½ cï¿½c tï¿½c ph?m, trong ?? tï¿½i nï¿½y chï¿½ng tï¿½i c? g?ng ch? ra nh?ng chuy?n bi?n v? quan ni?m con ng??i, nh?ng tr?n tr? tï¿½m tï¿½iï¿½ trï¿½n trang vi?t c?a nhï¿½ v?n Lï¿½ L?u. ?? tï¿½i s? khï¿½ng ?i vï¿½o toï¿½n b? tï¿½c ph?m c?a ï¿½ng mï¿½ ch? t?p trung vï¿½o m?t tï¿½c ph?m th?i k? ??i m?i, ?ï¿½ lï¿½: Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i (1991) * Ph??ng phï¿½p nghiï¿½n c?u Trong cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nï¿½y, chï¿½ng tï¿½i s? d?ng m?t s? ph??ng phï¿½p ch? y?u sau: Ph??ng phï¿½p l?ch s? ï¿½ xï¿½ h?i; Ph??ng phï¿½p so sï¿½nh; Ph??ng phï¿½p phï¿½n tï¿½ch. * C?u trï¿½c ?? tï¿½i Ngoï¿½i ph?n m? ??u, k?t lu?n vï¿½ danh m?c tï¿½i li?u tham kh?o ?? tï¿½i ???c c?u trï¿½c g?m hai ch??ng chï¿½nh. Ch??ng m?t: Lï¿½ l?u vï¿½ ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i Ch??ng hai: Nh?ng nï¿½t ??c s?c c?a ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ N?I DUNG Ch??ng m?t NHï¿½ V?N Lï¿½ L?U Vï¿½ TI?U THUY?T VI?T NAM TH?I K? ??I M?I 1.1. Ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i 1.1.1. Kha?i niï¿½?m tiï¿½?u thuyï¿½?t Cï¿½ th? hi?u ti?u thuy?t lï¿½: ï¿½hï¿½nh th?c t? s? c? l?n ??c bi?t ph? bi?n trong th?i c?n ??i vï¿½ hi?n ??i. V?i nh?ng gi?i h?n r?ng rï¿½i trong hï¿½nh th?c tr?n thu?t, ti?u thuy?t cï¿½ th? ch?a ??ng l?ch s? c?a nhi?u cu?c ??i, nh?ng b?c tranh phong t?c, ??o ??c xï¿½ h?i, miï¿½u t? c? th? cï¿½c ?i?u ki?n sinh ho?t giai c?p, tï¿½i hi?n nhi?u tï¿½nh cï¿½ch ?a d?ngï¿½ [14, tr.387]. 1.1.2. Ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam tr??c th?i k? ??i m?i C?m h?ng ch? ??o c?a ti?u thuy?t th?i k? nï¿½y lï¿½ c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n cï¿½ch m?ng. G?t ra ngoï¿½i nh?ng v??ng b?n ??i th??ng, nh?ng n?i bu?n cï¿½ nhï¿½n, v??t lï¿½n trï¿½n nh?ng hy sinh m?t mï¿½t, v?n xuï¿½i giai ?o?n nï¿½y ph?n ï¿½nh khï¿½ th? hï¿½o hï¿½ng, nh?ng chi?n cï¿½ng hi?n hï¿½ch c?a dï¿½n t?c, h??ng con ng??i v? phï¿½a ï¿½nh sï¿½ng vï¿½ t??ng lai. 1.1.3. Ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i V?n h?c ?ï¿½ th?c s? ???c c?i trï¿½i, cho nï¿½n ch? ??, ?? tï¿½i ???c m? r?ng, khï¿½ng b? gï¿½ ï¿½p, khï¿½ng b? gi?i h?n. V?n h?c ?ï¿½ tï¿½m v? v?i ï¿½con ng??i ??i th??ngï¿½, ï¿½con ng??i cï¿½ nhï¿½nï¿½ nh?ng v?n ï¿½m?iï¿½, v?n khï¿½ng d?m chï¿½n lï¿½n l?i c? mï¿½ ??y sï¿½ng t?o trong s? v?n ??ng khï¿½ng ng?ng c?a cu?c s?ng m?i. V?n h?c ???c tr? l?i ï¿½thiï¿½n ch?cï¿½ c?a mï¿½nh trong vi?c ph?n ï¿½nh ??i s?ng vï¿½ ?i?u ?y t?o nï¿½n gi?ng ?i?u ?a thanh trong m?i tï¿½c ph?m, trong t?ng tï¿½c gi?. 1.2. S? nghi?p sï¿½ng tï¿½c v?n h?c c?a Lï¿½ L?u 1.2.1. Vï¿½i nï¿½t v? tï¿½c gi? Nhï¿½ v?n Lï¿½ L?u sinh ngï¿½y 12/12/1942 t?i m?t lï¿½ng ngoï¿½i ?ï¿½ sï¿½ng H?ng, thï¿½n M?n Hoï¿½, xï¿½ Tï¿½n Chï¿½u, huy?n Khoï¿½i Chï¿½u  H?ng Yï¿½n. ï¿½ng hi?n nay ?ang ??m nhi?m ch?c Giï¿½m ??c c?a Trung tï¿½m V?n hï¿½a Doanh nhï¿½n t?i Hï¿½ N?i. 1.2.2. S? nghi?p sï¿½ng tï¿½c Tr??c khi tr? thï¿½nh nhï¿½ ti?u thuy?t cï¿½ tï¿½n tu?i, Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ t?ng lï¿½ m?t cï¿½y bï¿½t truy?n ng?n. Lï¿½ m?t nhï¿½ v?n  chi?n s?, tr?c ti?p ??ng trong hï¿½ng ng? c?a nh?ng anh lï¿½nh c? H?, n?m tr?i bao nhiï¿½u ??ng cay c?a cu?c chi?n tranh, cho nï¿½n sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a ï¿½ng th??ng in ??m d?u ?n chi?n tranh vï¿½ ch?t ch?a bao suy t? tr?n tr? v? tï¿½nh ng??i, tï¿½nh ??i. Tï¿½c ph?m ti?u bi?u c?a ï¿½ng: Ng??i c?m sï¿½ng (1970)  gi?i nhï¿½ bï¿½o V?n ngh?; M? r?ng (1976); Th?i xa v?ng (1986)  gi?i A H?i nhï¿½ v?n Vi?t Nam; Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i (1991); Sï¿½ng ? ?ï¿½y sï¿½ng (1994); Truy?n ng?n Lï¿½ L?u (2003). Ch??ng hai NH?NG Nï¿½T ??C S?C C?A TI?U THUY?T ï¿½CHUY?N Lï¿½NG CU?Iï¿½ 2.1. Tï¿½m t?t tï¿½c ph?m ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ Cï¿½u chuy?n xoay quanh cu?c ??i ??y ?au kh? c?a bï¿½ ??t. Chuy?n b?t ??u vï¿½ k?t thï¿½c b?ng cï¿½i ch?t c?a bï¿½. T? ??y, tï¿½c gi? cho cï¿½c nhï¿½n v?t tï¿½i hi?n l?i dï¿½ng quï¿½ kh? thï¿½ng qua nh?ng m?i tï¿½nh. 2.2. C?m h?ng bi k?ch thay th? cho ch?t s? thi vï¿½ c?m h?ng ng?i ca 2.2.1. Khï¿½i ni?m c?m h?ng  C?m h?ng bi k?ch Tï¿½c ph?m ngh? thu?t chï¿½nh lï¿½ k?t qu? c?a c?m h?ng. ?i?u nï¿½y ???c Nguy?n V?n H?nh, Hu?nh Nh? Ph??ng tri?n khai m?t cï¿½ch c? th? vï¿½ ?i ??n k?t lu?n: ï¿½C?m h?ng lï¿½ s? thi?t tha vï¿½ nhi?t tï¿½nh n?ng chï¿½y g?i nï¿½n b?i m?t t? t??ng nï¿½o ?ï¿½ [7, tr.208 209]. Cu?c s?ng con ng??i lï¿½ th? gi?i muï¿½n mï¿½u, chï¿½nh vï¿½ th?, c?m h?ng c?ng mang nhi?u d?ng th?c khï¿½c nhau. Cï¿½ c?m h?ng bi k?ch, c?m h?ng hï¿½i k?ch, c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n, c?m h?ng chï¿½m bi?m... 2.2.2. C?m h?ng bi k?ch trong v?n h?c Vi?t Nam tr??c vï¿½ sau th?i k? ??i m?i Nï¿½i ??n c?m h?ng bi k?ch trong v?n h?c Vi?t Nam ï¿½tr??c th?i k? ??i m?iï¿½ lï¿½ nï¿½i ??n m?t ch?ng ???ng dï¿½i mï¿½ tï¿½c ph?m ??u tiï¿½n chï¿½nh lï¿½ truy?n thuy?t M? Chï¿½u  Tr?ng Th?y... C?m h?ng bi k?ch ???c ti?p n?i trong n?n v?n h?c vi?t cho ??n tr??c n?m 1945, ? giai ?o?n nï¿½y bi k?ch chï¿½nh lï¿½ m?i xung ??t gi?a khï¿½t v?ng chï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng riï¿½ng t? c?a con ng??i vï¿½ kh? n?ng khï¿½ng th? th?c hi?n ???c nh?ng khï¿½t v?ng ?ï¿½ trong cu?c s?ng. V?n h?c giai ?o?n t? 1945 ??n tr??c th?i k? ??i m?i v?i nhi?m v? ??ng viï¿½n c? v? nï¿½n ???c vi?t hoï¿½n toï¿½n b?i ch?t s? thi vï¿½ c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n. C?m h?ng bi k?ch h?u nh? khï¿½ng xu?t hi?n, khï¿½ng ???c kh?i ngu?n. Sau n?m 1986, v?n h?c ? giai ?o?n nï¿½y khï¿½ng ch? cï¿½ bi k?ch c?a s? m?t mï¿½t mï¿½ cï¿½c nhï¿½ v?n th?i k? ??i m?i cï¿½n kh?c ho? t?n bi k?ch l?c lï¿½ng c?a ng??i lï¿½nh sau cu?c chi?n. Khï¿½ng ch? d?ng l?i m?i quan h? gi?a con ng??i v?i hoï¿½n c?nh, v?n h?c th?i k? ??i m?i cï¿½n khï¿½m phï¿½ bi k?ch trong m?i quan h? gi?a con ng??i v?i con ng??i ? nh?ng cung b?c khï¿½c nhau. 2.2.3. C?m h?ng bi k?ch trong ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ Nhï¿½ v?n Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ kh?c ho? ??m nï¿½t nh?ng bi k?ch xu?t phï¿½t t? hoï¿½n c?nh xï¿½ h?i. Bï¿½ ??t  nhï¿½n v?t chï¿½nh c?a ti?u thuy?t Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i r?i vï¿½o th?m k?ch hoï¿½n toï¿½n do hoï¿½n c?nh mang l?i. B?ng c?m h?ng bi k?ch, Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ tinh t? khï¿½m phï¿½ t?n cï¿½ng chi?u sï¿½u c?a n?i ?au mï¿½ ng??i ph? n? ?ï¿½ng th??ng ?y ph?i tr?i qua. T?ng dï¿½ng ch? nh? th?m ??m n??c m?t c?a ng??i c?m bï¿½t. Nhï¿½ v?n ?ï¿½ ??y bi k?ch lï¿½n ??n ??nh ?i?m b?ng cï¿½i ch?t ??y b?t ng? vï¿½ ï¿½khï¿½ng bï¿½nh th??ngï¿½ chï¿½t nï¿½o c?a ng??i m? ?ï¿½ng th??ng. 2.3. M?t cï¿½ch nhï¿½n m?i v? hi?n th?c nï¿½ng thï¿½n Vi?t Nam ? tï¿½c ph?m Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i, nh?ng s?c mï¿½u khï¿½c nhau c?a b?c tranh lï¿½ng quï¿½ Vi?t Nam ???c nhï¿½ v?n ph?n ï¿½nh khï¿½ s?c nï¿½t. L?n theo cu?c ??i c?a m?i nhï¿½n v?t, ï¿½s?c mï¿½u nï¿½ng thï¿½nï¿½ c? hi?n hi?n m?t cï¿½ch t? nhiï¿½n, ?m ?p s?c s?ng. H?n th? n?a, nh?ng t?p t?c, l? thï¿½i, phong v?, t?p quï¿½n c?a lï¿½ng quï¿½ Vi?t Nam ???c miï¿½u t? m?t cï¿½ch chï¿½n th?c v?i m?t ch?t gi?ng ??m th?m, yï¿½u th??ng h?n h?u. 2.4. S? ??i m?i trong k?t c?u tï¿½c ph?m 2.4.1. Tï¿½nh hu?ng truy?n Khi ??c Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i c?a Lï¿½ L?u, chï¿½ng ta th?y n?m n?p lo s?, h?i h?p cho s? ph?n c?a nhï¿½n v?t. Vï¿½ d??ng nh? ?ï¿½ m? nh?ng trang sï¿½ch ??u tiï¿½n thï¿½ khï¿½ng ai cï¿½ th? g?p sï¿½ch l?i mï¿½ ph?i ti?p t?c ??c, ti?p t?c theo dï¿½i di?n bi?n cï¿½u chuy?n. Cï¿½ ???c ?i?u nï¿½y lï¿½ do tï¿½c gi? ?ï¿½ khï¿½o lï¿½o xï¿½y d?ng nh?ng tï¿½nh hu?ng truy?n b?t ng?, gay c?n. 2.4.2. K?t thï¿½c truy?n Trong tï¿½c ph?m, ta nh?n th?y nhï¿½ v?n ?ï¿½ gï¿½y ???c s? b?t ng? cho ng??i ??c trong cï¿½ch k?t thï¿½c tï¿½c ph?m. V?i ki?u k?t nï¿½y th?c s? ?ï¿½ cho ng??i ??c c?m giï¿½c yï¿½n lï¿½ng vï¿½ nhï¿½n v?t mï¿½ mï¿½nh yï¿½u thï¿½ch cu?i cï¿½ng c?ng v? ???c ï¿½b?n ??ï¿½. 2.5. S?? ?a da?ng trong gi?ng ?i?u tr?n thu?t 2.5.1. Gi?ng ?i?u hï¿½i h??c, trï¿½o ti?u Cï¿½ th? nï¿½i gi?ng ?i?u hï¿½i h??c lï¿½ m?t trong nh?ng ch?t gi?ng ???c Lï¿½ L?u th? hi?n ??m nï¿½t trong tï¿½c ph?m c?a mï¿½nh. Chï¿½nh ch?t gi?ng ?ï¿½ ?ï¿½ giï¿½p nhï¿½ v?n ??a nh?ng y?u t? c?a v?n h?c trï¿½o ti?u dï¿½n gian vï¿½o tï¿½c ph?m. Chï¿½nh ch?t gi?ng hï¿½i h??c t?u tï¿½o giï¿½p cho tï¿½c ph?m c?a ï¿½ng g?n g?i h?n v?i b?n ??c. ? ?ï¿½, khï¿½ng cï¿½n ch? cho gi?ng ?i?u s? thi, mï¿½ ngï¿½n ng? su?ng sï¿½ ??i th??ng ???c nhï¿½ v?n s? d?ng m?t cï¿½ch tï¿½i tï¿½nh, ??m nï¿½t, nhi?u h?n trong cï¿½c tï¿½c ph?m. 2.5.2. Gi?ng tri?t lï¿½, ng?m ngï¿½i xï¿½t th??ng Ngoï¿½i gi?ng hï¿½i h??c hï¿½m h?nh t?o nï¿½n nh?ng trang vi?t ï¿½s?c ng?tï¿½, ï¿½lï¿½m l?nhï¿½, Lï¿½ L?u cï¿½n tr?n thu?t v?i ch?t gi?ng tri?t lï¿½, ng?m ngï¿½i xï¿½t th??ng. Ch?t gi?ng nï¿½y th??ng lï¿½ tr?n thu?t nh?ng suy ngh? c?a nhï¿½n v?t vï¿½ chï¿½nh gi?ng ?i?u mang tï¿½nh suy t? tri?t lï¿½ ?ï¿½ gï¿½p ph?n lï¿½m cho s?c khï¿½i quï¿½t c?a tï¿½c ph?m sï¿½u s?c h?n. K?T LU?N Cï¿½ th? nh?n th?y chï¿½nh nh?ng thay ??i quan ni?m v? cï¿½ch nhï¿½n hi?n th?c, con ng??i c?ng nh? nh?ng n? l?c trong sï¿½ng t?o ngh? thu?t khi?n tï¿½c ph?m c?a Lï¿½ L?u th?i k? ??i m?i ?ï¿½ gï¿½p ph?n tï¿½ch c?c trong vi?c ??i m?i n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam ???ng ??i. V? m?t n?i dung, ta th?y r?ng, v?i cï¿½i nhï¿½n s?c bï¿½n, Lï¿½ L?u th?c s? ?ï¿½ cï¿½ nh?ng ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p to l?n cho n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam ???ng ??i. Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i ?ï¿½ ??i tho?i ???c v?i cu?c s?ng. H?n th? n?a, nh?ng nhï¿½n v?t nh? bï¿½ ??t, L?u Minh Hi?uï¿½ v?a mang nh?ng nï¿½t riï¿½ng l?i v?a mang tï¿½nh khï¿½i quï¿½t sï¿½u s?c ??c ?i?m c?a m?t l?p ng??i thu?c ï¿½th?i xa v?ngï¿½. V? m?t ngh? thu?t, chï¿½ng ta th?y rï¿½, d??ng nh? chuy?n ??ng ??ng sau cï¿½c s? ki?n, s? vi?c lï¿½ dï¿½ng t? t??ng, lï¿½ nh?ng chiï¿½m nghi?m mï¿½ ï¿½ng mu?n g?i g?m t?i b?n ??c. ??c bi?t, nh?ng t? t??ng ?y ???c ng??i c?m bï¿½t khï¿½o lï¿½o ??a vï¿½o gi?a cï¿½c dï¿½ng, cï¿½c ch??ng, gi?a cï¿½c s? ki?n, chi ti?t ng?n ng?n c?a ??i s?ng. Tï¿½I LI?U THAM KH?O 1. L?i Nguyï¿½n ï¿½n (2004), 150 thu?t ng? v?n h?c, Nxb ??i h?c Qu?c gia Hï¿½ N?i. 2. Phan C?? ?? (2005), V?n h?c Vi?t Nam th? k? XX, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, H. 3. Nguy?n V?n H?nh  Hu?nh Nh? Ph??ng (1999), Lï¿½ lu?n v?n h?c  v?n ?? vï¿½ suy ngh?, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, H. 4. Tr?n ??ng Khoa (1994), Chï¿½n dung vï¿½ ??i tho?i, Nxb Thanh Niï¿½n. 5. Nguy?n V?n Long, Nguy?n ??ng M?nh (??ng ch? biï¿½n) (2002), L?ch s? v?n h?c Vi?t Nam (T?p 3), Nxb ??i h?c S? ph?m Hï¿½ N?i. 6. Ph??ng L?u, Tr?n ?ï¿½nh S?, Lï¿½ Ng?c Trï¿½ (1987), Lï¿½ lu?n v?n h?c, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, H. 7. Lï¿½ L?u (2003), T?p v?n, Nxb V?n hoï¿½ thï¿½ng tin, H. 8. Lï¿½ L?u (2006), Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i, Nxb V?n h?c, H. 9. ?? H?i Ninh (2006), ï¿½Ti?u thuy?t Lï¿½ L?u th?i k? ??i m?iï¿½, T?p chï¿½ Nghiï¿½n c?u V?n h?c, s? 7 2006. 10. Nguy?n Kh?c Sï¿½nh (2008), ï¿½?i tï¿½m phong cï¿½ch chung c?a V?n h?cï¿½, T?p chï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u V?n h?c, s? 22008.

?? tï¿½i NCKH ??t gi?i K. K H?i ngh? SV NCKH khoa Ng? V?n n?m 2010:THI PHï¿½P L?I TH? ??I ?ï¿½P TRONG Cï¿½C Lï¿½N ?I?U Dï¿½N CA VERIFICATION'S CHARATERIZATION PEOTRY PROFIT TO ANSWER IN FOLHSONG MELODY SVTH: Hoï¿½ng Chï¿½n Ph??ng L?p 07CVH1, Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng GVHD: TS. Lï¿½ ??c Lu?n Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng
Tï¿½M T?T Trong kho tï¿½ng ca dao ng??i Vi?t, l?i hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p luï¿½n gi? m?t vai trï¿½ quan tr?ng trong vi?c th? hi?n tï¿½nh c?m c?a con ng??i. Bï¿½n c?nh nh?ng l?i th? cï¿½ n?i dung ng?t ngï¿½o, sï¿½u s?c thï¿½ thi phï¿½p l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p c?ng r?t phong phï¿½ vï¿½ ?a d?ng. Chï¿½nh vï¿½ v?y, m?c ?ï¿½ch chï¿½nh c?a bï¿½i bï¿½o nï¿½y chï¿½ng tï¿½i ?i sï¿½u vï¿½o nghiï¿½n c?u cï¿½c khï¿½a c?nh c?a thi phï¿½p l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p nh?: th? th?, c?u trï¿½c ng? ngh?a, ngï¿½n ng?, cï¿½ch th?c t? ch?c vï¿½ hï¿½nh th?c di?n x??ng, nhï¿½n v?t, bi?u t??ng. Tï¿½m hi?u v? nh?ng ??c tr?ng c?a thi phï¿½p l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p lï¿½ m?t vi?c lï¿½m thi?t th?c. Qua ?ï¿½, ph?n nï¿½o ta cï¿½ th? hi?u ???c s? sï¿½ng t?o vï¿½ cï¿½ch bï¿½y t? tï¿½nh c?m c?a nhï¿½n dï¿½n ta ngï¿½y tr??c. V?i ?? tï¿½i nï¿½y, chï¿½ng tï¿½i xin gï¿½p ph?n tï¿½m hi?u m?t s? cï¿½ch ti?p c?n v? thi phï¿½p l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p nï¿½i riï¿½ng, dï¿½n ca nï¿½i chung. ABSTRACT In the treassure of Vietnamese folksong, in the way people sang answer in tracditiol always play an important role in express people's emotion. Besides a sweet, profound poem's lyrics, versification's charateriation poetry profit to answer also are abudent and diversity. So the main aim of this reseach, we study deely in the fï¿½eld of: style of poetry, semantic, construction, language, style of organization and oratio form, character, symbol. To fathom about versification's charactrization peotry profit to ansew its be expedience deed. Here, we can somewhat understand how to express creativity and emotional days of our people. With this theme, we can fild out some approaches to implement reply poetry profit versification in particalar, folksong in general. 1. ??t v?n ?? Hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p th? hi?n m?t cï¿½ch chï¿½n th?c vï¿½ sinh ??ng m?i m?t c?a ??i s?ng lao ??ng c?ng nh? t? t??ng, tï¿½nh c?m c?a ng??i dï¿½n, ??c bi?t lï¿½ tï¿½nh yï¿½u ?ï¿½i l?a. Nï¿½ lï¿½m cho cï¿½c bï¿½i trao ??i ki?n th?c v? t? nhiï¿½n vï¿½ xï¿½ h?i t?ng thï¿½m v? nh? nhï¿½ng, t??i vui. Giï¿½p cho chï¿½ng ta rï¿½n luy?n kh? n?ng v? ?ng kh?u vï¿½ nh?y h?n v? c?m h?ng. Hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p c?ng lï¿½ m?t hï¿½nh th?c ?? t?o ra s? hï¿½i hoï¿½ gi?a nh?ng tï¿½m h?n cï¿½ nhï¿½n vï¿½ tï¿½nh c?m c?a t?p th?, qua m?t cï¿½ch th?c th? hi?n th?t tr? tï¿½nh. L?i hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p sinh ra t? cu?c s?ng lao ??ng vï¿½ ngh? thu?t t?p th?, t? yï¿½u c?u trao ??i tï¿½nh c?m gi?a cï¿½ nhï¿½n vï¿½ xï¿½ h?i. Nï¿½ kh?i dï¿½ng, l?a l?c vï¿½ truy?n ?i ngu?n th? c?a dï¿½n gian. B?i v?y, hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p tr? thï¿½nh nh?p c?u, n?i li?n ca dao dï¿½n ca v?i th? tr? tï¿½nh c? ?i?n vï¿½ hi?n ??i. Vi?c nghiï¿½n c?u vï¿½ tï¿½m hi?u v? hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p trong cï¿½c lï¿½n ?i?u dï¿½n ca lï¿½ m?t vi?c lï¿½m thi?t th?c, gï¿½p ph?n b?o t?n vï¿½ phï¿½t huy b?n s?c c?a dï¿½n t?c ta. 2. S? l??c v? thi phï¿½p v?n h?c dï¿½n gian vï¿½ l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p 2.1. Khï¿½i ni?m v? thi phï¿½p h?c "Thi phï¿½p h?c lï¿½ khoa h?c v? cï¿½ch th?c, cï¿½c d?ng th?c, cï¿½c ph??ng ti?n, ph??ng th?c t? ch?c tï¿½c ph?m c?a sï¿½ng tï¿½c ngï¿½n t?, v? cï¿½c ki?u c?u trï¿½c vï¿½ cï¿½c th? lo?i tï¿½c ph?m v?n h?c. Nï¿½ mu?n bao quï¿½t khï¿½ng ch? lï¿½ cï¿½c hi?n t??ng c?a ngï¿½n t? mï¿½ cï¿½n lï¿½ cï¿½c khï¿½a c?nh khï¿½c nhau c?a tï¿½c ph?m v?n h?c vï¿½ sï¿½ng tï¿½c dï¿½n gian"  V.Vinogradov  2.2. Vï¿½i nï¿½t v? thi phï¿½p v?n h?c dï¿½n gian Thi phï¿½p v?n h?c dï¿½n gian lï¿½ toï¿½n b? cï¿½c ??c ?i?m hï¿½nh th?c ngh? thu?t sï¿½ng tï¿½c di?n x??ng dï¿½n gian c?a t?p th? nhï¿½n dï¿½n v?a cï¿½ ??c ?i?m ngï¿½n t? v?n h?c, v?a cï¿½ ??c ?i?m v?n b?n th?c hï¿½nh giao ti?p, lï¿½ lo?i hï¿½nh v?n h?c ph?n ï¿½nh b?ng ngï¿½n ng? gi?i h?n trong nh?ng khuï¿½n m?u ??nh s?n mang phong cï¿½ch dï¿½n t?c, phong cï¿½ch khu v?c vï¿½ ??a ph??ng rï¿½ r?t, ???c th? hi?n trong m?t h? th?ng th? tï¿½i riï¿½ng bi?t, ??c thï¿½ [16, tr12]. 2.3. S? l??c vï¿½i nï¿½t v? m?i quan h? "ca dao" vï¿½ "dï¿½n ca" Dï¿½n ca lï¿½ m?t lo?i hï¿½nh sï¿½ng tï¿½c dï¿½n gian mang tï¿½nh ch?t t?ng h?p bao g?m l?i nh?c, ??ng tï¿½c, ?i?u b? k?t h?p v?i nhau trong di?n x??ng. Ca dao lï¿½ l?i c?a cï¿½c cï¿½u hï¿½t dï¿½n gian vï¿½ nh?ng sï¿½ng tï¿½c ngï¿½m v?nh ???c l?u truy?n trong dï¿½n gian vï¿½ g?i chung lï¿½ l?i ca dï¿½n gian. 2.4. Vï¿½i nï¿½t v? hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p Hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p lï¿½ m?t hï¿½nh th?c sinh ho?t giao duyï¿½n t?p th? ho?c cï¿½c c?p hï¿½t l?. Hï¿½t l? lï¿½ hï¿½t b?t c? khi nï¿½o vï¿½ khï¿½ng quy ??nh cï¿½ch th?c hï¿½t. Hï¿½t t?p th? lï¿½ ph?i tuï¿½n theo quy trï¿½nh hï¿½t, cï¿½ch th?c hï¿½t c? th? tu? theo t?ng lo?i dï¿½n ca, cï¿½c cu?c hï¿½t t?p th? th??ng chia hai phe nam n?, ??i ?ï¿½p theo t?ng ch?ng hï¿½t. 3. M?t s? ??c ?i?m v? n?i dung vï¿½ cï¿½ch phï¿½n lo?i l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p 3.1. Ngu?n g?c vï¿½ quï¿½ trï¿½nh phï¿½t tri?n c?a hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p C?ng nh? h?u h?t cï¿½c th? lo?i khï¿½c nhau c?a hï¿½nh th?c ca hï¿½t dï¿½n gian, cï¿½c bï¿½i hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p ra ??i ngay t? th?i kï¿½ phï¿½t tri?n r?t s?m c?a c?ng ??ng ng??i Vi?t, g?n li?n v?i s? ra ??i c?a ï¿½m nh?c vï¿½ nh?y mï¿½a. Vï¿½ c?ng nh? cï¿½c th? lo?i chï¿½nh c?a v?n ngh? dï¿½n gian, trong nh?ng giai ?o?n ??u m?i phï¿½t tri?n, cï¿½c bï¿½i hï¿½t ?ï¿½ ra ??i vï¿½ t?n t?i trong m?i quan h? h?u c? gi?a ho?t ??ng tinh th?n vï¿½ ho?t ??ng v?t ch?t c?a ng??i Vi?t. 3.2. N?i dung hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p vï¿½ cï¿½ch phï¿½n lo?i D?a vï¿½o thï¿½i ?? c?a ??i tho?i, ta cï¿½ th? chia n?i dung c?a l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p thï¿½nh: L?i kï¿½u g?i; Khuyï¿½n b?o nhau; H?i, ?? nhau; Than th?, th? l?, mong ??c cï¿½ nhau; T? gi?i thi?u cho nhau, trï¿½ch mï¿½c, di?u c?t nhau. 3.3. Ti?n trï¿½nh m?t cu?c hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p Ti?n trï¿½nh m?t cu?c hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p c?a dï¿½n gian nï¿½i chung cï¿½ nh?ng nï¿½t gi?ng nhau nh? hï¿½t Ph??ng V?i ? Ngh? T?nh, hï¿½t tr?ng quï¿½n ? Thanh Hoï¿½, hï¿½ khoan ? Qu?ng Nam  ?ï¿½ N?ng, hï¿½ khoan x? Hu?... ??u ???c di?n ra theo ba b??c: hï¿½t chï¿½om?i, hï¿½t vï¿½o cu?c, hï¿½t h?nhï¿½t ti?n. 4. ??c tr?ng thi phï¿½p l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p 4.1. Th? th? 4.1.1. Th? th? l?c bï¿½t Th? th? l?c bï¿½t lï¿½ th? th? hay ???c dï¿½ng nh?t trong cï¿½c cu?c hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p nam n?. Nhi?u cu?c hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p nam n? nh? v?y cï¿½ th? kï¿½o dï¿½i thï¿½u ?ï¿½m su?t sï¿½ng mï¿½ ng??i hï¿½t c?ng nh? ng??i nghe khï¿½ng c?m th?y chï¿½n. Trong nh?ng cu?c hï¿½t ?ï¿½, ngu?n c?m h?ng vï¿½ t?n c?a ng??i hï¿½t khï¿½ng b? giï¿½n ?o?n. Th? th? l?c bï¿½t bao g?m nh?ng c?p cï¿½u v?i hai dï¿½ng (v?), dï¿½ng trï¿½n cï¿½ sï¿½u ï¿½m ti?t, dï¿½ng d??i cï¿½ tï¿½m ï¿½m ti?t. a) L?c bï¿½t ch?nh th? ? l?c bï¿½t ch?nh th?, s? ï¿½m ti?t c?a m?i dï¿½ng khï¿½ng thay ??i, v? trï¿½ gieo v?n luï¿½n c? ??nh: ï¿½m ti?t cu?i c?a dï¿½ng l?c v?n v?i ï¿½m ti?t sï¿½u c?a dï¿½ng bï¿½t, ï¿½m ti?t cu?i cï¿½ng c?a dï¿½ng bï¿½t nï¿½y b?t ??u v?i ï¿½m ti?t cu?i cï¿½ng c?a dï¿½ng l?c c?a c?p bï¿½t ti?p theo, r?i c? th? ti?p t?c..., ch? cï¿½ v?n b?ng. Nh?p ph? bi?n c?a l?c bï¿½t ch?nh th? lï¿½ 2/2/2 vï¿½ 2/2/2/2, ?ï¿½i khi nh?p thay ??i theo yï¿½u c?u di?n t? c?m xï¿½c  tï¿½m lï¿½ (3/3 vï¿½ 4/4 ho?c 3/3 vï¿½ 2/2/4). b) L?c bï¿½t bi?n th? L?c bï¿½t bi?n th? lï¿½ nh?ng cï¿½u ca dao cï¿½ hï¿½nh th?c l?c bï¿½t nh?ng khï¿½ng khï¿½t kh?t theo ki?u dï¿½ng trï¿½n sï¿½u ï¿½m ti?t, dï¿½ng d??i tï¿½m ï¿½m ti?t mï¿½ luï¿½n cï¿½ s? co gi?n nh?t ??nh v? ï¿½m ti?t, trong ?ï¿½ khuï¿½n hï¿½nh v? v?n v?n ???c gi?, cï¿½n s? ï¿½m ti?t trong m?i dï¿½ng th? cï¿½ th? thay ??i. Nh? v?y, l?c bï¿½t lï¿½ th? th? ???c s? d?ng ph? bi?n trong l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p. V?i nh?ng ï¿½m ?i?u nh? nhï¿½ng, uy?n chuy?n, th? th? l?c bï¿½t ?ï¿½ gï¿½p ph?n lï¿½m cho l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p th?t tï¿½nh t?, ï¿½ nh?. 4.1.2. Song th?t l?c bï¿½t Th? th? nï¿½y ???c s? d?ng trong nh?ng l?i ??i ?ï¿½p tuy khï¿½ng ph? bi?n nh? th? th? l?c bï¿½t, nh?ng c?ng lï¿½ th? th? b?t ngu?n t? cï¿½c lï¿½n ?i?u dï¿½n ca. Nh? s? luï¿½n phiï¿½n c? hai cï¿½u b?y ï¿½m ti?t l? ??n hai cï¿½u sï¿½u vï¿½ tï¿½m ï¿½m ti?t, luï¿½n phiï¿½n gi?a v?n tr?c (ï¿½m ti?t cu?i cï¿½u b?y trï¿½n v?n v?i ï¿½m ti?t n?m c?a cï¿½u b?y d??i) v?i v?n b?ng (ï¿½m ti?t b?y cï¿½u b?y d??i v?n v?i ï¿½m ti?t cu?i c?a cï¿½u l?c ti?p theo, r?i l?i v?n v?i ï¿½m ti?t sï¿½u c?a cï¿½u bï¿½t, ï¿½m ti?t cu?i c?a cï¿½u bï¿½t nï¿½y l?i b?t v?n b?ng v?i ï¿½m ti?t n?m c?a cï¿½u b?y ti?p li?n sau ?ï¿½, c? th?...), th? song th?t l?c bï¿½t t?o nï¿½n m?t s? bi?n ??i m?i m? so v?i th? l?c bï¿½t. a) Song th?t l?c bï¿½t ch?nh th? Th? th? song th?t l?c bï¿½t hoï¿½n ch?nh ???c s? d?ng trong l?i ??i ?ï¿½p r?t thï¿½ch h?p ?? di?n t? nh?ng tï¿½m tr?ng ??y khï¿½c m?c. V?n tr?c vï¿½ ti?t t?u theo nh?p 3/4 nh?ng cï¿½u b?y th? hi?n r?t thï¿½nh cï¿½ng nh?ng tï¿½nh c?m khï¿½ng tr?n v?n, nh?ng n?i ?au kh? u?t ?c... Nh?p ?i?u uy?n chuy?n vï¿½ s? xen k? c?a v?n l?ng vï¿½ v?n chï¿½n, v?n b?ng vï¿½ v?n tr?c lï¿½m cho cï¿½c cï¿½u th? qu?n quï¿½t l?y nhau, cï¿½u n? kï¿½o theo cï¿½u kia m?t cï¿½ch liï¿½n t?c. b) Song th?t l?c bï¿½t bi?n th? Th? th? song th?t l?c bï¿½t bi?n th?, v?i nh?ng cï¿½u th? dï¿½i ng?n quï¿½ kh? cï¿½ tï¿½c d?ng nï¿½u lï¿½n nh?ng khï¿½ kh?n trï¿½ng ?i?p, mu?n giï¿½i bï¿½y, tï¿½m s?... Th? song th?t l?c bï¿½t bi?n th? lï¿½ s? kï¿½o dï¿½i s? ï¿½m ti?t c?a m?i cï¿½u, b?i th? v? trï¿½ gieo v?n c?a cï¿½c cï¿½u c?ng cï¿½ th? bi?n ??i theo 4.1.3. Th? vï¿½n Trong l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p, th? vï¿½n khï¿½ng ???c dï¿½ng ph? bi?n nh? th? l?c bï¿½t hay song th?t l?c bï¿½t. Tuy nhiï¿½n, khi hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p, ?ï¿½i khi ta v?n b?t g?p nh?ng l?i th? ???c th? hi?n theo th? th? nï¿½y. Trong hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p, nh?ng nhï¿½n v?t tr? tï¿½nh cï¿½ th? b?c b?ch v?i nhau t?t c?, cï¿½ nhi?u lï¿½c ph?i k? l? s? tï¿½nh, nh?ng n?i ?m ?c trong lï¿½ng c?ng ph?i nï¿½i ra ?? cï¿½ng nhau chia s?, cï¿½u th? l?c bï¿½t kï¿½o dï¿½i s? lï¿½m h?n ch? ch?c n?ng c?a nï¿½. Vï¿½ th?, hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p ?ï¿½i khi l?i th? ph?i s? d?ng th? l?c bï¿½t k?t h?p v?i th? vï¿½n ?? bï¿½i ca cï¿½ gi?ng k? l?, d?n d?t. 4.2. C?u trï¿½c ng? ngh?a L?i th? trong hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p ???c hï¿½nh thï¿½nh do s? k?t h?p b?i l?i th? vï¿½ ti?ng ??m, ti?ng lï¿½t, ti?ng lï¿½y. Trong sinh ho?t hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p, l?i th? ???c c?u trï¿½c theo hai hï¿½nh th?c lï¿½ l?i ??n vï¿½ l?i ?ï¿½i 4.2.1. C?u trï¿½c l?i ??n ?ï¿½y lï¿½ d?ng c?u trï¿½c ch? cï¿½ m?t v? ??n. Trong hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p, c?u trï¿½c l?i ??n ???c th? hi?n ch? y?u ? cï¿½c ki?u: c?u trï¿½c ??i ?ng, c?u trï¿½c ??i sï¿½nh, c?u trï¿½c song hï¿½nh. 4.2.2. C?u trï¿½c l?i ?ï¿½i ?ï¿½y lï¿½ ki?u c?u trï¿½c ch? ??o trong hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p. Trong l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p, c?u trï¿½c l?i ?ï¿½i ???c th? hi?n ? hai ki?u lï¿½: c?u trï¿½c ??i giï¿½i (c?u trï¿½c hai v? t??ng h?p, c?u trï¿½c hai v? ??i l?p) vï¿½ c?u trï¿½c ?? giï¿½i (c?u trï¿½c t??ng h?p vï¿½ c?u trï¿½c khï¿½ng t??ng h?p). 4.3. Ngï¿½n ng? L?i ?ï¿½p ?ï¿½p sinh ra t? cu?c s?ng lao ??ng vï¿½ ngh? thu?t t?p th?, t? yï¿½u c?u trao ??i tï¿½nh c?m gi?a cï¿½ nhï¿½n, xï¿½ h?i trong nh?ng ?i?u ki?n l?ch s? vï¿½ v?n hoï¿½ nh?t ??nh. Nï¿½ kh?i dï¿½ng, l?a l?c vï¿½ truy?n ?i ngu?n th? c?a dï¿½n gian. Nï¿½ lï¿½ m?t nh?p c?u n?i li?n ca dao dï¿½n ca v?i th? tr? tï¿½nh c? ?i?n vï¿½ hi?n ??i. 4.3.1. Ngï¿½n ng? ??i ?ï¿½p g?n bï¿½ m?t thi?t v?i ngï¿½n ng? cï¿½c lï¿½n ?i?u dï¿½n ca 4.3.2. ?nh h??ng c?a ngï¿½n ng? ??i ?ï¿½p v?i l?i th? v?n h?c vi?t 4.4. Cï¿½ch th?c t? ch?c vï¿½ hï¿½nh th?c di?n x??ng Cï¿½ch th?c t? ch?c: ï¿½t nh?t ph?i cï¿½ hai ng??i hï¿½t. Cï¿½ th? hï¿½t theo hï¿½nh th?c hï¿½t ngh?a vï¿½ hï¿½t ? b?t c? tr??ng h?p nï¿½o, nh?ng khi ?ï¿½ t? ch?c theo hï¿½nh th?c hï¿½t cu?c thï¿½ ph?i chu?n b? tr??c vï¿½ hï¿½t theo ?ï¿½ng th? t? t?ng ch?ng. Hï¿½nh th?c di?n x??ng: Sï¿½ng tï¿½c trong ca dao dï¿½n ca th??ng cï¿½ tï¿½nh ng?u h?ng nï¿½n trong hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p khï¿½u sï¿½ng tï¿½c vï¿½ khï¿½u di?n x??ng khï¿½ng tï¿½ch r?i nhau. 4.5. Nhï¿½n v?t, bi?u t??ng Nhï¿½n v?t: ch? y?u lï¿½ nhï¿½n v?t tr? tï¿½nh, tï¿½m tr?ng. Th??ng x?ng hï¿½ v?i nhau b?ng cï¿½c c?p ??i t? nhï¿½n x?ng nh? mï¿½nh ta, thi?p chï¿½ng, loan ph?ng... Bi?u t??ng: cï¿½c lo?i cï¿½y nh? trï¿½c, mai, ...; Cï¿½c lo?i hoa nh? hoa ?ï¿½o, hoa sen, hoa nhï¿½i... ???c xu?t hi?n v?i t?n s? cao. Bi?u t??ng thiï¿½n nhiï¿½n ???c nh?c ??n nhi?u nh?t. Thiï¿½n nhiï¿½n cï¿½ khi ???c bi?u hi?n d??i d?ng th?i gian, cï¿½ khi d??i d?ng khï¿½ng gian, cï¿½ khi lï¿½ cï¿½y c? hay ?? v?t... 5. K?t lu?n V?i nh?ng l?i th? ng?t ngï¿½o, tr? tï¿½nh nh?ng khï¿½ng kï¿½m ph?n chï¿½n ch?t, m?c m?c k?t h?p v?i nh?ng lï¿½n ?i?u dï¿½n ca, hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p ?ï¿½ tr? thï¿½nh m?t nï¿½t v?n hoï¿½ ??c s?c c?a dï¿½n t?c Vi?t Nam. Hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p ?ï¿½ b?c l? tï¿½m h?n con ng??i b?ng ï¿½m thanh, nh?p ?i?u vï¿½ l?i nï¿½i, th? hi?n m?i quan h? gi?a con ng??i v?i con ng??i, con ng??i v?i thiï¿½n nhiï¿½n. Hï¿½t ??i ?ï¿½p cï¿½ m?t cï¿½ch th?c th? hi?n nh? nhï¿½ng, th?t kï¿½n ?ï¿½o vï¿½ t? nh?. Qua vi?c tï¿½m hi?u v? l?i th? ??i ?ï¿½p, ph?n nï¿½o ta cï¿½ th? hi?u ???c s? sï¿½ng t?o vï¿½ cï¿½ch bï¿½y t? tï¿½nh c?m c?a nhï¿½n dï¿½n ta ngï¿½y tr??c. Tï¿½I LI?U THAM KH?O [1] Nguy?n V?n B?n (1984), V?n ngh? dï¿½n gian Qu?ng Nam ?ï¿½ N?ng  T?p 1, Nxb S? VHTT  Qu?ng Nam ?ï¿½ N?ng. [2] Chu Xuï¿½n Diï¿½n (2004), M?y v?n ?? v?n hoï¿½ vï¿½ v?n h?c dï¿½n gian Vi?t Nam, Nxb V?n Ngh? T.P H? Chï¿½ Minh. [3] Cao Huy ??nh (1978), Tï¿½m hi?u ti?n trï¿½nh v?n h?c dï¿½n gian Vi?t Nam, Nxb Khoa H?c Xï¿½ H?i. [4] B?o ??nh Giang (1984), Ca dao dï¿½n ca Nam B?, Nxb T.P H? Chï¿½ Minh. [5] V? Th? Thu H??ng (2007), Ca dao Vi?t Nam vï¿½ nh?ng l?i bï¿½nh, Nxb V?n Hoï¿½ Thï¿½ng Tin. [6] ?inh Gia Khï¿½nh (2006), V?n h?c dï¿½n gian Vi?t Nam, Nxb Giï¿½o D?c. [7] Nguy?n Xuï¿½n Kï¿½nh (2006), Thi phï¿½p ca dao, Nxb ??i H?c Qu?c Gia Hï¿½ N?i. [8] Nguy?n Xuï¿½n Kï¿½nh (1995), Kho tï¿½ng ca dao ng??i Vi?t  T?p 4, Nxb V?n Hoï¿½ Thï¿½ng Tin. [9] Lï¿½ ??c Lu?n (2009), C?u trï¿½c ca dao tr? tï¿½nh ng??i Vi?t, Nxb ??i H?c Hu?.
Tï¿½c gi?: Hoï¿½ng Chï¿½n Ph??ng L?p 07CVH1 ï¿½ Khoa Ng? V?n ï¿½ ?HSP ?i?n tho?i: 01685970939 Email: maiphuongphuong87@gmail.com 
?? tï¿½i NCKH ??t gi?i K. Khï¿½ch H?i ngh? SV NCKH khoa Ng? V?n n?m 2010:CH?T TRI?T Lï¿½ TRONG V?N XUï¿½I NGUY?N KH?I (QUA XUNG ??T, Mï¿½A L?C, Hï¿½Y ?I XA H?N N?AVï¿½ NG??I TR? V?) QUALITY PHILOSOPHY IN PROSE, NGUYEN KHAI (THROUGH CONFLICT, SEASONAL, GO FURTHER AND RETURN)
SVTH: Ph?m Tr?ng ??t L?p 07CVH1, Khoa Ng? v?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng SVTH: ?? Th? Nhung L?p 07CVH2, Khoa Ng? v?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng GVHD: PGS.TS Nguy?n Phong Nam Khoa Ng? v?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng
Tï¿½M T?T Nh?ng sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a Nguy?n Kh?i th??ng mang khuynh h??ng chï¿½nh lu?n ï¿½ th?i s?, v?i nh?ng cï¿½u v?n ??y mï¿½u s?c tri?t lï¿½. M?c ?ï¿½ch c?a bï¿½i bï¿½o lï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u cï¿½c ??c ?i?m tri?t lï¿½ trong v?n xuï¿½i c?a ï¿½ng. C? th? lï¿½ tri?t lï¿½ v? cu?c ??i; tri?t lï¿½ v? con ng??i vï¿½ tri?t lï¿½ v? tï¿½n giï¿½o. Nh?ng ??c ?i?m tri?t lï¿½ nï¿½y ?ï¿½ cho chï¿½ng ta th?y m?t phong cï¿½ch ngh? thu?t ??c ?ï¿½o c?a Nguy?n Kh?i: m?t nhï¿½ v?n hi?n th?c t?nh tï¿½o v?i tï¿½nh chï¿½nh lu?n s?c s?o vï¿½ m?t gi?ng ?i?u ??y tï¿½nh tranh bi?n, tri?t lï¿½. Thï¿½m vï¿½o ?ï¿½ nï¿½ cï¿½n cho th?y quï¿½ trï¿½nh phï¿½t tri?n c?a m?t tï¿½i n?ng t? ch?ng ???ng ??u c?a s? nghi?p ??n s? tr??ng thï¿½nh chï¿½n ch?n c?a m?t cï¿½y bï¿½t hi?n th?c cï¿½ch m?ng s?c s?o. ABSTRACT Nguyen Khai compositions often tend to the review, the time the sentence with colorful philosophy. purposes of this paper is to study the characteristics of philosophy in his prose. particular philosophy of life, human philosophy and philosophy of religion. characteristics of this philosophy has showed us a unique art style of the Nguyen Khai: a writer with the sober reality of a talk tone is sharp and highly arguments, philosophical. adding that it also shows the development of a top talent from the stage to maturity, maturity of a true revolutionary pen sharp.
M? ??U 1. Lï¿½ do ch?n ?? tï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i lï¿½ m?t cï¿½y bï¿½t n?ng n? nh?y bï¿½n v?i cï¿½c v?n ?? xï¿½ h?i. Tï¿½c ph?m c?a ï¿½ng thu?ng mang mï¿½u s?c tri?t lï¿½ v? con ng??i vï¿½ ??o ??c nhï¿½n sinh. Vi?c nghiï¿½n c?u ?? tï¿½i nï¿½y s? giï¿½p ta hi?u h?n v? n?ng l?c t? duy c?ng nh? b? sung ki?n th?c v? m?t tï¿½c gia v?n h?c l?n. ??ng th?i nï¿½ giï¿½p chï¿½ng ta s?ng t?t h?n, v?ng tin h?n trong cu?c s?ng ??y khï¿½ kh?n vï¿½ bi?n ??ng hi?n nay. 2. ??i t??ng vï¿½ ph?m vi nghiï¿½n c?u ??i t??ng nghiï¿½n c?u: ??c ?i?m ch?t tri?t lï¿½ trong v?n xuï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i. c? th? lï¿½ tri?t lï¿½ v? cu?c ??i; tri?t lï¿½ v? con ng??i; tri?t lï¿½ v? tï¿½n giï¿½o. Ph?m vi nghiï¿½n c?u trong Xung ??t; Mï¿½a l?c; Hï¿½y ?i xa h?n n?a vï¿½ Ng??i tr? v?. 3. Ph??ng phï¿½p nghiï¿½n c?u Ph??ng phï¿½p h? th?ng, th?ng kï¿½; Phï¿½n tï¿½ch t?ng h?p; So sï¿½nh, ??i chi?u. 4. L?ch s? v?n ?? nghiï¿½n c?u Nguy?n Kh?i lï¿½ m?t tï¿½c gi? n?i ti?ng c?a V?n h?c Vi?t Nam hi?n ??i cho nï¿½n cï¿½ r?t nhi?u cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nghiï¿½n c?u v? ï¿½ng nï¿½i chung vï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u v? tï¿½c ph?m vï¿½ nh?ng giï¿½ tr? c?a nï¿½ nï¿½i riï¿½ng. M?i ng??i khï¿½m phï¿½ ? m?i khï¿½a c?nh khï¿½c nhau tuy nhiï¿½n ? ph?m vi ?? tï¿½i nï¿½y thï¿½ ch?a cï¿½ m?t cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nï¿½o th?c s? tr? thï¿½nh h? th?ng hoï¿½n ch?nh c?. Tr??c h?t lï¿½ nh?ng nh?n ??nh, ?ï¿½nh giï¿½ v? Nguy?n Kh?i. ??i di?n cho khuynh h??ng nï¿½y lï¿½ V? Qu?n Ph??ng, Nguy?n ??ng M?nh, V??ng Trï¿½ Nhï¿½n, Phan C? ??, ?ï¿½o Th?y Nguyï¿½nï¿½nhï¿½n chung cï¿½c nhï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u ??u th?ng nh?t ?ï¿½nh giï¿½ Nguy?n Kh?i lï¿½ cï¿½y bï¿½t xï¿½ng xï¿½o, n?ng n?, nh?y bï¿½n. Ti?p ??n lï¿½ nh?ng bï¿½i nghiï¿½n c?u v? giï¿½ tr? cï¿½c tï¿½c ph?m c?a Nguy?n Kh?i cï¿½ng v?i ch?t tri?t lï¿½ trong v?n xuï¿½i ï¿½ng. ??i di?n nh? ?? Kim H?i, V? Tu?n Anh, Hï¿½ Minh ??c, Tuy?t Nga, L?i Nguyï¿½n ï¿½nï¿½ Riï¿½ng ch? cï¿½ Lï¿½ Thï¿½nh Vinh ?ï¿½ cï¿½ m?t cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nghiï¿½n c?u mang tï¿½n ï¿½Tri?t lu?n v? tï¿½n giï¿½o trong ti?u thuy?t Nguy?n Kh?iï¿½ nh?ng v?i ?? tï¿½i nï¿½y, tï¿½c gi? ch? khai thï¿½c ch? y?u ? m?t tri?t lu?n trong ph?m vi nh?ng ti?u thuy?t, nh?t lï¿½ nh?ng ti?u thuy?t sau n?m 1975. Cï¿½n ?i?u mï¿½ chï¿½ng tï¿½i ?? c?p ??n lï¿½ nh?ng v?n ?? tri?t lï¿½ trong ph?m vi m?t tï¿½c ph?m c? th?. 5. B? c?c cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nghiï¿½n c?u Ngoï¿½i ph?n M? ??u, K?t lu?n vï¿½ ph?n Danh m?c tï¿½i li?u tham kh?o; ph?n N?i dung ???c chia thï¿½nh hai ch??ng chï¿½nh: Ch??ng 1: Nguy?n Kh?i ï¿½ con ng??i vï¿½ s? nghi?p Ch??ng 2: ??c ?i?m ch?t tri?t lï¿½ trong v?n xuï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i
N?I DUNG CH??NG I: NGUY?N KH?I  CON NG??I Vï¿½ S? NGHI?P 1.1 Con ng??i vï¿½ nh?ng ch?ng ???ng v?n 1.1.1 Vï¿½i nï¿½t v? ti?u s? Nguy?n Kh?i tï¿½n khai sinh lï¿½ Nguy?n M?nh Kh?i. ï¿½ng sinh ngï¿½y 03 thï¿½ng 12 n?m 1930 t?i Hï¿½ N?i, m?t ngï¿½y 15 thï¿½ng 01 n?m 2008 t?i thï¿½nh ph? H? Chï¿½ Minh. 1.1.2 Nh?ng ch?ng ???ng v?n Nguy?n Kh?i T? n?m 1965 tr? v? tr??c: tï¿½c ph?m c?a ï¿½ng lï¿½ nh?ng khï¿½c trï¿½ng ca lï¿½ng m?n c?a cï¿½ng cu?c xï¿½y d?ng ch? ?? m?i ï¿½ Xï¿½ h?i ch? ngh?a. Tï¿½c ph?m tiï¿½u bi?u nh? Xung ??t, t?p truy?n Mï¿½a l?c, T?m nhï¿½n xaï¿½ T? n?m 1965 ï¿½ 1975: ï¿½ng ch? y?u vi?t v? ng??i anh hï¿½ng trong cu?c khï¿½ng chi?n ch?ng M? c?u n??c. Tï¿½c ph?m nh? H? s?ng vï¿½ chi?n ??u, ???ng trong mï¿½y, Ra ??oï¿½ T? sau n?m 1975, bï¿½n c?nh nh?ng sï¿½ng tï¿½c vi?t v? n?i ï¿½ng ?ï¿½ ?i qua, Nguy?n Kh?i cï¿½n vi?t v? nh?ng mi?n ??t m?i: G?p g? cu?i n?m, Th?i gian c?a ng??i. ??c bi?t lï¿½ cï¿½c trang vi?t v? Hï¿½ N?i nh? M?t ng??i Hï¿½ N?i, Ng??i c?a ngï¿½y x?a. 1.2 Quan ni?m c?a Nguy?n Kh?i v? v?n h?c 1.2.1 V? sï¿½ng tï¿½c v?n h?c Vi?t v?n v?i ï¿½ng khï¿½ng ch? lï¿½ ?? kh?ng ??nh mï¿½nh mï¿½ quan tr?ng h?n lï¿½ ?? ??n ?n cï¿½ch m?ng. Theo ï¿½ng, tinh th?n c?a nhï¿½ v?n h??ng vï¿½o cu?c ??u tranh vï¿½ s? ti?n b? c?a xï¿½ h?i lï¿½ ?i?u ?ï¿½ng trï¿½n tr?ng.
1.2.2 V? nhï¿½ v?n Nguy?n Kh?i quan ni?m nhï¿½ v?n ph?i tr? thï¿½nh ng??i b?n ?ï¿½ng tin c?y c?a ??c gi?. Mu?n th? h? ph?i cï¿½ tï¿½i vï¿½ cï¿½ tï¿½m. ï¿½ng c?ng ?ï¿½i h?i nhï¿½ v?n ph?i cï¿½ m?t tinh th?n d?ng c?m dï¿½m nï¿½i ra nh?ng m?t sai trï¿½i c?a con ng??i vï¿½ xï¿½ h?i. 1.3 ??c s?c ngh? thu?t trong v?n xuï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i 1.3.1 Nguy?n Kh?i ï¿½ nhï¿½ v?n hi?n th?c t?nh tï¿½o Nguy?n Kh?i luï¿½n dï¿½ng ngï¿½i bï¿½t hi?n th?c, giï¿½u tï¿½nh chi?n ??u c?a mï¿½nh ?? phï¿½ phï¿½n, v?ch ra ch? ?ï¿½ng, ch? sai c?a con ng??i. ï¿½ng lï¿½ m?t nhï¿½ v?n ch?u khï¿½ ?i vï¿½ tï¿½m tï¿½i. 1.3.2 Tï¿½nh chï¿½nh lu?n s?c s?o V?n ?? chï¿½nh lu?n trong tï¿½c ph?m c?a Nguy?n Kh?i nhï¿½n chung ??u mang ï¿½ ngh?a nhï¿½n v?n c? th?. S?c h?p d?n trong sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a ï¿½ng lï¿½ tï¿½nh v?n ??. 1.3.3 Tï¿½nh n?ng ??ng, th?i s? Nguy?n Kh?i cï¿½ m?t ? nh?ng n?i chi?n s? x?y ra ï¿½c li?t nh?t, ï¿½ng luï¿½n theo k?p b??c ?i c?a cï¿½ch m?ng. 1.3.4 Gi?ng tranh bi?n tri?t lï¿½ Trong cï¿½c sï¿½ng tï¿½c, Nguy?n Kh?i th??ng thï¿½ng qua cï¿½c cu?c ??i tho?i c?a nhï¿½n v?t ?? trï¿½nh bï¿½y cï¿½c v?n ?? c?a ??i s?ng. t?t nh?ng v?n ?? nhï¿½n sinh th? s? ???c cï¿½c nhï¿½n v?t quan tï¿½m, bï¿½n lu?n trï¿½n m?i khï¿½a c?nh t?o nï¿½n tri?t lï¿½ sï¿½u s?c.
CH??NG II: ??C ?I?M CH?T TRI?T Lï¿½ TRONG V?N XUï¿½I NGUY?N KH?I 2.1 C? s? c?a ch?t tri?t lï¿½ trong v?n xuï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i 2.1.1 Nguyï¿½n nhï¿½n ch? quan Nguy?n Kh?i cï¿½ m?t gia ?ï¿½nh b?t h?nh c?ng v?i ?i?u ki?n s?ng vï¿½ cï¿½ng khï¿½ kh?n nï¿½n t? nh? ph?i s?ng r?t c? c?c nï¿½n ?ï¿½ hï¿½nh thï¿½nh trong ï¿½ng m?t ï¿½ chï¿½ s?ng ?? kh?ng ??nh mï¿½nh. Thï¿½m n?a tr??c khi tr? thï¿½nh m?t nhï¿½ v?n ï¿½ng t?ng lï¿½m tuyï¿½n hu?n vï¿½ vi?t bï¿½o, ?i?u ?ï¿½ ?ï¿½ giï¿½p ï¿½ng cï¿½ s? nh?y c?m vï¿½ hi?u bi?t c?n thi?t tr??c cu?c ??i. 2.1.2 Nguyï¿½n nhï¿½n khï¿½ch quan Cï¿½ch m?ng thï¿½ng Tï¿½m vï¿½ cu?c khï¿½ng chi?n ch?ng Phï¿½p ?em l?i cho ï¿½ng c? h?i ?? kh?ng ??nh mï¿½nh. N?m 1975 ï¿½ng chuy?n vï¿½o Nam sinh s?ng vï¿½ lï¿½m vi?c, chï¿½nh mï¿½i tr??ng m?i ?ï¿½ cho ï¿½ng cï¿½i nhï¿½n sï¿½u s?c h?n v?i nh?ng quan ni?m ??y ?? h?n v? cu?c s?ng, con ng??i. 2.2 N?i dung tri?t lï¿½ trong Xung ??t, Mï¿½a l?c, Hï¿½y ?i xa h?n n?a vï¿½ Ng??i tr? v? 2.2.1 Tri?t lï¿½ v? cu?c ??i V?i Nguy?n Kh?i, tri?t lï¿½ v? cu?c ??i ???c hi?u lï¿½ nh?ng chiï¿½m nghi?m, nh?ng ?ï¿½c k?t, lï¿½ gi?i v? cu?c ??i. Nhi?u sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a ï¿½ng lï¿½ nh?ng bï¿½i h?c, tri?t lï¿½ v? l?i s?ng. Rï¿½ rï¿½ng Nguy?n Kh?i ?ï¿½ khï¿½i quï¿½t lï¿½n m?t tri?t lï¿½ v? l?i s?ng: cu?c ??i con ng??i ch?ng th? qu?n quanh n?i ch?t h?p mï¿½ cï¿½n ph?i bi?t b??c ra ngoï¿½i xï¿½ h?i ?? kh?ng ??nh mï¿½nh vï¿½ ph?i cï¿½ c?ng hi?n cho cu?c ??i. Bï¿½n c?nh ?ï¿½, Nguy?n Kh?i cï¿½n tri?t lï¿½ v? con ng??i v?i cï¿½c kh? n?ng thï¿½ch ?ng vï¿½ l?a ch?n. Trong vï¿½ vï¿½n s? l?a ch?n cho cu?c s?ng c?a con ng??i, Nguy?n Kh?i ?ï¿½ ??t v?n ?? ph?i cï¿½ s? l?a ch?n sao cho phï¿½ h?p v?i hoï¿½n c?nh c?a mï¿½nh Tï¿½c ph?m c?a Nguy?n Kh?i ?ï¿½ ??t ra nhi?u v?n ?? sï¿½u s?c, nï¿½u lï¿½n m?t quan ni?m, m?t cï¿½ch nhï¿½n m?i v? nï¿½ng thï¿½n hi?n nay: ph?i cï¿½ m?t thï¿½i ?? ?ï¿½ng, cï¿½ch nhï¿½n ?ï¿½ng thï¿½ m?i hi?u h?t ???c cu?c s?ng m?i ? nï¿½ng thï¿½n. 2.2.2 Tri?t lï¿½ v? con ng??i ï¿½ng ?ï¿½ tri?t lï¿½ v? s?c m?nh ?n sï¿½u trong m?i con ng??i ?? m?i khi cï¿½ th? thï¿½ch nï¿½ l?i tr?i d?y. Nguy?n Kh?i ??t ra yï¿½u c?u lï¿½ con ng??i c?n ph?i cï¿½ m?t s?c m?nh ?? v??t qua nh?ng ranh gi?i riï¿½ng c?a b?n thï¿½n mï¿½nh. Suy cho cï¿½ng thï¿½ cu?c ??i con ng??i lï¿½ m?t quï¿½ trï¿½nh n? l?c v??n lï¿½n khï¿½ng ng?ng ?? b??c qua nh?ng ranh gi?i ?ï¿½. Nguy?n Kh?i ?ï¿½ t?p trung gi?i quy?t v?n ?? v? cï¿½ch nhï¿½n nh?n con ng??i m?i trong cï¿½ng cu?c xï¿½y d?ng Xï¿½ h?i ch? ngh?a. ï¿½ng ?ï¿½ nhï¿½n th?y s? thay ??i khï¿½ng ch? v? v?t ch?t mï¿½ cï¿½n cï¿½ nh?ng thay ??i trong nh?n th?c, t? duy c?a con ng??i khi ti?p nh?n ï¿½nh sï¿½ng c?a cu?c s?ng m?i. ï¿½ng ?ï¿½i h?i m?i chï¿½ng ta c?n ph?i cï¿½ m?t s? sï¿½ng su?t trong vi?c ?ï¿½nh giï¿½ con ng??i, trï¿½nh vi?c ch? c?n c? vï¿½o b? ngoï¿½i mï¿½ cï¿½ nh?ng ?ï¿½nh giï¿½ sai l?m khï¿½ng ?ï¿½ng cï¿½. 2.2.3 Tri?t lï¿½ v? tï¿½n giï¿½o Tï¿½n giï¿½o v?i Nguy?n Kh?i ?ï¿½ lï¿½ vi?c tï¿½m vï¿½o th? gi?i tï¿½m linh, ?? n?i ?ï¿½ ï¿½ng ???c an ?i vï¿½ tï¿½m th?y cho mï¿½nh ni?m tin vï¿½o cu?c s?ng. Trong Xung ??t, Nguy?n Kh?i ?ï¿½ ?? c?p ??n ni?m tin tï¿½n giï¿½o, tin vï¿½o m?t ngï¿½y kia cu?c ??i c?a h? s? ??i khï¿½c, tin vï¿½o h? s? ???c lï¿½n thiï¿½n ?ï¿½ng ?? h?u h? Chï¿½a. ï¿½ng ?ï¿½ phï¿½ phï¿½n vï¿½ lï¿½n ï¿½n tï¿½n giï¿½o lï¿½ m?t k? thï¿½ c?a cï¿½ch m?ng. Ngoï¿½i ra ï¿½ng cï¿½n cho chï¿½ng ta th?y s? chi ph?i vï¿½ cï¿½ng m?nh m? c?a tï¿½n giï¿½o ??n toï¿½n b? ??i s?ng c?a ng??i dï¿½n x? H?. Trong tï¿½n giï¿½o Nguy?n Kh?i cï¿½n nhï¿½n th?y s? v?n ??ng t?t y?u t? ch? ph?n ï¿½??oï¿½ ???c chï¿½ tr?ng chuy?n sang ph?n ï¿½??iï¿½ ???c quan tï¿½m h?n. Ng??i dï¿½n x? H? khï¿½ng cï¿½n coi tï¿½n giï¿½o nh? lï¿½ m?t th? l?c duy nh?t ?nh h??ng ??n ??i s?ng c?a h? n?a.
K?T LU?N Tï¿½c ph?m c?a ï¿½ng luï¿½n luï¿½n lï¿½ m?t kho tri th?c mï¿½ chï¿½ng ta cï¿½ th? h?c h?i ? ??y r?t nhi?u ?i?u. ??c v?n Nguy?n Kh?i, ph?n chï¿½nh khï¿½ng ph?i lï¿½ ??c truy?n mï¿½ ??c v?n ??, khï¿½ng ph?i s?ng cï¿½ng cu?c ??i nhï¿½n v?t mï¿½ s?ng cï¿½ng v?i suy ngh? c?a tï¿½c gi?. ï¿½ng lï¿½ nhï¿½ v?n c?a lï¿½ t??ng, c?a tri?t lï¿½ nhï¿½n sinh. Tuy nhiï¿½n m?t ?i?u khï¿½ng th? ph? nh?n lï¿½ cï¿½ng trong nh?ng giai ?o?n v? sau ch?t tri?t lï¿½ trong v?n xuï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i cï¿½ng sï¿½u s?c h?n. M?c dï¿½ v?y cï¿½ cï¿½i tr??c r?i m?i cï¿½ cï¿½i sau vï¿½ ch?t tri?t lï¿½ trong v?n xuï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i tr??c n?m 1975, ??c bi?t lï¿½ trong b?n tï¿½c ph?m trï¿½n ?ï¿½ t?o nï¿½n cho ï¿½ng m?t phong cï¿½ch ngh? thu?t ??c ?ï¿½o. DANH M?C Tï¿½I LI?U THAM KH?O CHï¿½NH
1 Thï¿½nh Duy (1961), ï¿½Mï¿½a l?c ï¿½ m?t thï¿½nh cï¿½ng m?i c?a Nguy?n Kh?iï¿½, T?p chï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u V?n h?c s? 6, Trang 1 8 2 Phan C? ?? (ch? biï¿½n, 2007), Truy?n ng?n Vi?t Nam, L?ch s?  Thi phï¿½p ï¿½ Chï¿½n dung, NXB Giï¿½o d?c. 3 Hoï¿½ng Nh? Mai, Nguy?n ??ng M?nh (ch? biï¿½n,2000), V?n h?c Vi?t Nam, t?p 1, NXB Giï¿½o d?c. 4 Nguy?n ??ng M?nh (1979), Nhï¿½ v?n t? t??ng vï¿½ phong cï¿½ch, NXB Tï¿½c ph?m m?i H?i nhï¿½ v?n. 5 V??ng Trï¿½ Nhï¿½n (1996), ï¿½Vï¿½i nï¿½t v? cï¿½c sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a Nguy?n Kh?i trong nh?ng n?m g?n ?ï¿½yï¿½, T?p chï¿½ V?n h?c s? 2, Tr 8 ï¿½ 11. 6 Tuy?t Nga (1999), ï¿½Nguy?n Kh?i v?i bï¿½t kï¿½ t?p v?nï¿½, T?p chï¿½ V?n h?c s? 11, Trang 72 ï¿½ 77. 7 Tuy?t Nga (2004), Phong cï¿½ch v?n xuï¿½i Nguy?n Kh?i, NXB H?i nhï¿½ v?n. 8 ?ï¿½o Th?y Nguyï¿½n (2001), ï¿½Th? gi?i nhï¿½n v?t Nguy?n Kh?i trong c?m h?ng nghiï¿½n c?u phï¿½n tï¿½chï¿½, T?p chï¿½ V?n h?c s? 11,Trang 53 ï¿½ 63. 9 Nguy?n V?n Long (ch? biï¿½n, 2007), Giï¿½o trï¿½nh V?n h?c Vi?t Nam hi?n ??i, t?p 2, NXB ??i h?c s? ph?m. 10 Lï¿½ Thï¿½nh Vinh (2009), ï¿½Tri?t lu?n v? tï¿½n giï¿½o trong ti?u thuy?t c?a Nguy?n Kh?iï¿½, Lu?n v?n Th?c s?, ??i h?c S? ph?m ?ï¿½ N?ng
Tï¿½c gi?
Ph?m Tr?ng ??t l?p 07CVH1 Khoa Ng? v?n tr??ng ??i h?c S? ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng, s? ?i?n tho?i liï¿½n l?c: 0982415493.
?? Th? Nhung l?p 07CVH2 Khoa Ng? v?n tr??ng ??i h?c S? ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng, s? ?i?n tho?i liï¿½n l?c: 0983913649 
?? tï¿½i NCKH ??t gi?i Khuy?n Khï¿½ch H?i ngh? SV NCKH khoa Ng? V?n n?m 2010:T?C TH? ??C THï¿½NH ?ï¿½NG H?I ??I V??NG NGUY?N PH?C Lï¿½NG PHï¿½ Xï¿½, QU?NG X??NG, THANH Hï¿½A THE CUSTOM ?ONG HAI ?AI VUONG THE HOLY MONK NGUYEN PHUC IN PHU XA VILLAGE, QUANG XUONG, THANH HOA
SVTH: Nguy?n V?n Thu?n L?p 06CVHH, Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng GVHD: TS. nguy?n Xuï¿½n H??ng Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng
Tï¿½M T?T T?c th? ?ï¿½ cï¿½ l?ch s? h?n n?m th? k? t?n t?i vï¿½ phï¿½t tri?n ? lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½. Nï¿½ ch?a ??ng m?t giï¿½ tr? to l?n c? v? v?t ch?t vï¿½ tinh th?n nh? giï¿½ tr? l?ch s?, v?n hï¿½a tinh th?n, tï¿½m linh, giï¿½ tr? ??o ??c, giï¿½ tr? du l?ch. Nghi l? g?n li?n v?i l? h?i c?u ng?, c?u mï¿½a, c?u bï¿½nh an c?a ng??i dï¿½n lï¿½ng bi?n. T?c th? nï¿½y g?n li?n v?i nh?ng truy?n thuy?t, s? tï¿½ch, s?c phong, nghi l?. Tuy nhiï¿½n thï¿½ ch?a cï¿½ m?t v?n b?n thï¿½nh v?n nï¿½o ghi chï¿½p v? t?c th? nï¿½y, t? tr??c t?i nay vi?c l?u truy?n nï¿½ ch? b?ng truy?n mi?ng vï¿½ thï¿½i quen trong sinh ho?t hï¿½ng ngï¿½y. Bï¿½i vi?t nï¿½y gï¿½p ph?n giï¿½p nhï¿½n dï¿½n n?i ?ï¿½y cï¿½ m?t v?n b?n thï¿½nh v?n, khoa h?c n?i l?u gi? cï¿½c giï¿½ tr? c?a t?c th? ??ng th?i gï¿½p ph?n b?o t?n, phï¿½t huy vï¿½ l?u truy?n t?c th? nï¿½y t?i h?u th?, qua ?ï¿½ gï¿½p ph?n ch?ng minh s? ?a d?ng c?a v?n hï¿½a bi?n nï¿½i chung, t?c th? nï¿½y nï¿½i riï¿½ng
ABSTRACT The custom of worshipping in Phu Xa village has existed for over 5 centuries. It contains the great material and spiritual values such as historical, cultural, spiritual, moral and tourism values. The custom goes with the festival of fishing pray, and safe pray of people living near sea. The custom goes with legends, myths, rituals. However, it has just been passed by tradition by oral and habits of daily activities of people. Therefore, the custom hasnï¿½t been recorded in any document. The purpose of my research is to help the local people have a scientific document which saving the values of this custom as well as reserving and developing it to future generations. And Ialso want to prove the varieties of sea culture in general and the custom in particular.
M? ??U T?c th? ??c Thï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c lï¿½ nï¿½t n?i b?t, nï¿½t ??c s?c c?a v?n hï¿½a bi?n Vi?t Nam nï¿½i chung lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ nï¿½i riï¿½ng. T?c th? cï¿½ tï¿½nh ch?t thiï¿½ng liï¿½ng vï¿½ cï¿½ s? ?nh h??ng sï¿½u s?c t?i ??i s?ng tï¿½n ng??ng, tinh th?n c?a ng??i dï¿½n lï¿½ng bi?n Phï¿½ Xï¿½. T? bao ??i nay, nh?ng truy?n thuy?t, s? tï¿½ch, nghi l? liï¿½n quan ??n t?c th? Thï¿½nh Nguy?n Ph?c ? lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ lï¿½c hi?n h?u, lï¿½c c?t kï¿½n trong cï¿½i u minh vï¿½ lung linh hi?n hï¿½ch trong ??u ï¿½c ng??i dï¿½n n?i ?ï¿½y. H? truy?n ??i nhau b?ng mi?ng, b?ng thï¿½i quen trong sinh ho?t hï¿½ng ngï¿½y mï¿½ ch?a cï¿½ m?t tï¿½i li?u v?n b?n nï¿½o hay m?t cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nghiï¿½n c?u nï¿½o v? nï¿½ ???c l?u truy?n trong dï¿½n gian hay chï¿½nh quy?n ??a ph??ng. T?c th? vï¿½ ngï¿½i lï¿½ng ?ang ??ng tr??c th?i c? vï¿½ thï¿½ch th?c l?n cho s? phï¿½t tri?n khi mï¿½ lï¿½ng n?m trong vï¿½ng quy ho?ch phï¿½t tri?n du l?ch sinh thï¿½i bi?n. Tr??c kh? n?ng c?a s? bi?n ??i c?ng nh? mong mu?n ???c nghiï¿½n c?u v?: ï¿½T?c th? ??c Thï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½, Qu?ng X??ng, Thanh Hï¿½aï¿½ nï¿½n tï¿½i ?ï¿½ ?i sï¿½u kh?o sï¿½t vï¿½ tï¿½m hi?u nï¿½. N?I DUNG 1. Khï¿½i quï¿½t chung v? lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ 1.1. Lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ t? gï¿½c nhï¿½n ??a lï¿½ Lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ bao g?m thï¿½n 7, thï¿½n 8 vï¿½ thï¿½n 9 thu?c xï¿½ Qu?ng ??i, Qu?ng X??ng, Thanh Hï¿½a. Ngï¿½i lï¿½ng cï¿½ch khu du l?ch S?m S?n 6 km v? h??ng Nam. Khu lï¿½ng giï¿½p v?i ??a gi?i hï¿½nh chï¿½nh c?a xï¿½ Qu?ng Hï¿½ng v? phï¿½a B?c, phï¿½a Nam giï¿½p xï¿½ Qu?ng H?i, phï¿½a ?ï¿½ng giï¿½p bi?n ?ï¿½ng, phï¿½a Tï¿½y giï¿½p sï¿½ng Rï¿½o.(sï¿½ng nhï¿½ Lï¿½). Khu lï¿½ng cï¿½ di?n tï¿½ch kho?ng 0,7 km2, dï¿½n s? kho?ng 3.500 ng??i. V?i 1,2 km b? bi?n, ngu?n l?i th?y s?n phong phï¿½ ?a d?ng, nhi?u lo?i cï¿½ tr? l??ng l?n vï¿½ giï¿½ tr? kinh t? cao cho phï¿½p nhï¿½n dï¿½n trong lï¿½ng phï¿½t tri?n m?nh ngï¿½nh khai thï¿½ch h?i s?n bi?n. V?i bi?n ??p, ?? d?c th?p, sï¿½ng nh?, quanh n?m mï¿½t m?, hi?n hï¿½a l?i giï¿½p v?i hai khu du l?ch S?m S?n vï¿½ Hï¿½ng S?n cho phï¿½p lï¿½ng ??y m?nh phï¿½t tri?n kinh t? bi?n g?n v?i du l?ch sinh thï¿½i. 1.2. Lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ t? gï¿½c nhï¿½n l?ch s? Lï¿½ng ban ??u cï¿½ tï¿½n lï¿½ L??ng Xï¿½ sau ??i thï¿½nh Phï¿½ Xï¿½ thu?c t?ng Th? H?, huy?n Qu?ng X??ng, ph? Thiï¿½n Gia, tr?n Thanh Hï¿½a. ??u th? k? 20 lï¿½ng ??i tï¿½n thï¿½nh Th? Phï¿½, nh?ng tï¿½n Phï¿½ Xï¿½ v?n ???c nhï¿½n dï¿½n g?i song song v?i tï¿½n Th? Phï¿½. N?m 1990 lï¿½ng chia thï¿½nh 3 thï¿½n lï¿½ thï¿½n 7, thï¿½n 8 vï¿½ thï¿½n 9 thu?c xï¿½ Qu?ng ??i, Qu?ng X??ng, Thanh Hï¿½a. Lï¿½ng cï¿½ nhi?u ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p l?n trong cï¿½ng cu?c ?ï¿½nh ?u?i gi?c ngo?i xï¿½m b?o v? ??t n??c nh?: ??i vua Lï¿½ Trang Tï¿½ng (1533  1548), khi ?i ?ï¿½nh h? M?c ?ï¿½ ghï¿½ qua n?i nï¿½y, Quang Trung khi ï¿½ng ?em quï¿½n ra B?c ?ï¿½nh quï¿½n xï¿½m l??c nhï¿½ Thanh c?ng v? n?i ?ï¿½y ?? tuy?n m? quï¿½n lï¿½nh, nhi?u trai trï¿½ng c?a lï¿½ng ?ï¿½ theo ï¿½ng ?i ?ï¿½nh gi?c Thanh xï¿½m l??c. Trong cu?c khï¿½ng chi?n ch?ng th?c dï¿½n Phï¿½p vï¿½ ?? qu?c M? lï¿½ng ?ï¿½ cï¿½ nhi?u ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p quan tr?ng cho ??t n??c, cho dï¿½n t?c. ??c bi?t lï¿½ trong chi?n tranh phï¿½ ho?i mi?n B?c c?a ?? qu?c M?, dï¿½n quï¿½n t? v? c?a lï¿½ng ?ï¿½ ph?i h?p v?i b? ??i ??a ph??ng ?ï¿½ng ? nï¿½i Tr??ng L? ?ï¿½ b?n r?i m?t mï¿½y bay vï¿½ nhi?u tï¿½u chi?n c?a ??ch. Sau nï¿½y, vï¿½o n?m 1998 nhï¿½n dï¿½n trong lï¿½ng vï¿½ nhï¿½n dï¿½n c? xï¿½ Qu?ng ??i ?ï¿½ vinh d? nh?n danh hi?u anh hï¿½ng l?c l??ng v? trang nhï¿½n dï¿½n trong khï¿½ng chi?n ch?ng m?. 1.3. Lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ t? gï¿½c nhï¿½n kinh t?, xï¿½ h?i Ho?t ??ng kinh t? ch? ??o c?a c? lï¿½ng lï¿½ kinh t? bi?n, c? lï¿½ng cï¿½ 260 ph??ng ti?n ?ï¿½nh b?t trï¿½n bi?n ?a ph?n lï¿½ cï¿½ cï¿½ng xu?t nh? s? dung cï¿½c lo?i l??i vï¿½ gi? nï¿½n ch? y?u lï¿½ ?ï¿½nh b?t cï¿½, tï¿½m, ru?c, s?a ? g?n b?. ï¿½N?m 2009 t?ng s?n l??ng khai thï¿½c ??c ??t 1.100 t?n cï¿½ tï¿½m, s?n l??ng s?a t??i ??t kho?ng 18.000 t?nï¿½. Bï¿½n c?nh kinh t? bi?n lï¿½ng cï¿½n cï¿½ kinh t? nï¿½ng nghi?p vï¿½ buï¿½n bï¿½n. Nh?ng n?m g?n ?ï¿½y kinh t? c?a lï¿½ng phï¿½t tri?n m?t cï¿½ch nhanh chï¿½ng. Bi?u hi?n lï¿½ s? h? giï¿½u vï¿½ khï¿½ t?ng lï¿½n s? h? nghï¿½o gi?m m?nh, lï¿½ng khï¿½ng cï¿½n h? ?ï¿½i. H? th?ng giao thï¿½ng v?n t?i vï¿½ thï¿½ng tin liï¿½n l?c khï¿½ phï¿½t tri?n. Cï¿½ng v?i s? phï¿½t tri?n c?a kinh t? thï¿½ cï¿½c v?n ?? xï¿½ h?i c?ng ???c quan tï¿½m h?n tr??c. D?ch v? y t?, giï¿½o d?c, v?n hï¿½a, xï¿½ h?i ngï¿½y m?t t?ng ?? ?ï¿½p ?ng nhu c?u ngï¿½y cï¿½ng cao c?a nhï¿½n dï¿½n. 2. T?c th? ??c Thï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c ? lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ 2.1. ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c vï¿½ quï¿½ trï¿½nh thiï¿½ng hï¿½a Nguy?n Ph?c ng??i xï¿½ ?oï¿½n Tï¿½ng, huy?n Gia L?c, x? H?i D??ng. ï¿½ng ?? ?? nh? giï¿½p ti?n s?, khoa thi n?m Quï¿½ D?u hi?u Thï¿½i Hï¿½a th? 11 (1453) vï¿½ ???c b? lï¿½m ch?c quan Hï¿½n lï¿½m vi?n, tham ngh? chï¿½nh s? vi?n. ï¿½ng lï¿½ ng??i v?n v? song toï¿½n l?i cï¿½ tï¿½i ?n nï¿½i nï¿½n ?ï¿½ nhi?u l?n ???c c? ?i s? ? Trung Qu?c. ï¿½ng t?ng kim qua nhi?u ch?c v? khï¿½c nhau nh? quan Giï¿½m thï¿½, quan th?a tuyï¿½n tham ngh? Thanh Hoa, quan ??c l??ngï¿½ ? c??ng v? nï¿½o ï¿½ng c?ng hoï¿½n thï¿½nh t?t nhi?m v? ???c giao. Cu?i ??i vï¿½ khï¿½ng may cho s? ph?n nï¿½n ?ï¿½ b? vua Lï¿½ Thï¿½nh Tï¿½ng x? t?i ch?t vï¿½ tr? h?n quï¿½n c?. V? sau vua c?n th?y h?i h?n vï¿½ chuy?n nï¿½y nï¿½n ?ï¿½ phong cho ï¿½ng lï¿½ ??i v??ng bi?n ?ï¿½ng h?i, r?i ban chi?u cho nhï¿½n dï¿½n nhi?u n?i ph?ng th?. Quï¿½ trï¿½nh thiï¿½ng hï¿½a Nguy?n Ph?c lï¿½n thï¿½nh b?c Thï¿½nh th?n g?n li?n v?i nh?ng truy?n thuy?t, th?n tï¿½ch vï¿½ s?c phong. Th?n tï¿½ch v? ï¿½ng ???c cï¿½c nhï¿½ nho vï¿½ tri?u ?ï¿½nh phong ki?n ghi chï¿½p l?i r?t nhi?u nh? sï¿½ch ï¿½Th?n tï¿½ch Vi?t Namï¿½cï¿½ vi?t: Sau khi vua chi?n th?ng Chiï¿½m Thï¿½nh tr? v?, trï¿½n ???ng g?p sï¿½ng to giï¿½ l?n nï¿½n khï¿½ng ?i ???c. M?t ?ï¿½m Vua thao th?c tai nghe giï¿½ gï¿½o, sï¿½ng d?y tr?n tr?c khï¿½ng sao ng? ???c. Vua s?c nh? l?i thuy?n l??ng tr? k? h?n lï¿½ do sï¿½ng l?n gï¿½y ra, trong lï¿½ng h?i h?n, th??ng ti?c ??c l??ng quan b? thï¿½c oan. Trong lï¿½c m? mï¿½ng Vua nhï¿½n th?y ï¿½ng ??ng tr??c gi??ng ng? tï¿½u r?ng: ï¿½K? h? th?n c?m ?n tri ng? c?a b? h? nï¿½n d?u thï¿½c, linh h?n v?n theo ra chi?n tr?n. Nay nh? h?ng phï¿½c qu?c gia, b? h? d?p xong Chiï¿½m h?u, h? th?n l?i xin theo h? giï¿½ kh?i hoï¿½n. Vua Lï¿½ ch?t t?nh trï¿½ng ra v?ng ?ï¿½ng ?ï¿½ h?ng sï¿½ng. Bi?n l?ng sï¿½ng yï¿½n, ??i quï¿½n v??t bi?n tr? v? in ?n. Vua Lï¿½ Thï¿½nh Tï¿½ng truy phong ??c l??ng quan Nguy?n Ph?c t??c ??i v??ng bi?n ?ï¿½ng H?iï¿½. ??n th? ï¿½ng ? lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ ?ï¿½ 10 l?n nh?n s?c phong c?a cï¿½c vua tri?u Lï¿½, Nguy?n. Ngï¿½y nay lï¿½ng cï¿½n gi? l?i ???c 2 ??o s?c. Do th?i gian vï¿½ s? kh?c nghi?t c?a thiï¿½n nhiï¿½n nï¿½n m?t ??o s?c ?ï¿½ b? rï¿½c vï¿½ m? nï¿½t ch?, b?n cï¿½n l?i do vua Duy Tï¿½n n?m th? 3 ban t?ng. 2.2. Kh?o t? ??n th? ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c Vï¿½o kho?ng cu?i th?i Lï¿½ S? ngï¿½i ??n ???c xï¿½y d?ng ? khu ??t ??u lï¿½ng vï¿½ xï¿½y d?ng b?ng tre n?a, ??n nh? nh?ng khï¿½ng gian khï¿½ r?ng r?i. Sau ???c xï¿½y d?ng l?i b?ng g?ch vï¿½ g? r?t kiï¿½n c?. Cu?i th? k? XVIII ??n ???c di r?i v? v? trï¿½ trung tï¿½m c?a lï¿½ng vï¿½ t?n t?i ? ?ï¿½ cho t?i nay. Lï¿½c nï¿½y xï¿½y b?ng g?ch, ?ï¿½ vï¿½ g? r?t l?n. Trong cï¿½ch m?ng v?n hï¿½a, ngï¿½y 10/3/1961 ngï¿½i lï¿½ng b? phï¿½ b? tuy nhiï¿½n t?c th? v?n ï¿½m ? chï¿½y trong lï¿½ng ng??i dï¿½n c?a lï¿½ng. N?m 1992 nhï¿½n dï¿½n ?ï¿½ ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p cï¿½ng s?c, ti?n b?c ?? xï¿½y d?ng l?i ngï¿½i ??n nï¿½y. N?m 1999 ngï¿½i ??n vinh d? ?ï¿½n nh?n b?ng cï¿½ng nh?n di tï¿½ch l?ch s? v?n hï¿½a c?p t?nh. N?m 2008 t?nh ?y Thanh Hï¿½a ?ï¿½ cho phï¿½p tu s?a l?i gian chï¿½nh t?m c?a ngï¿½i ??n. Ngï¿½i ??n ???c xï¿½y d?ng thï¿½nh hai nhï¿½ bi?t l?p ng?n cï¿½ch b?ng m?t cï¿½i sï¿½n nh?, theo l?i ki?n trï¿½c hï¿½nh ch? ?inh. G?m m?t ngï¿½i ti?n ???ng n?m ngang chi?u dï¿½i 8,30 mï¿½t r?ng 5,70 mï¿½t, k?t c?u vï¿½ kï¿½o theo l?i giï¿½ chuï¿½ng k?, chuy?n b?y, 2 hiï¿½n tr??c sau, ï¿½t cï¿½ trang trï¿½ hoa v?n, t??ng xï¿½y b?ng g?ch, vï¿½ kï¿½o, xï¿½ nhï¿½ b?ng g?. Nhï¿½ chï¿½nh t?m n?m d?c chi?u dï¿½i 7m, chi?u r?ng 4,5m. Bï¿½n trong cï¿½ hai hï¿½ng c?t b?ng c?t bï¿½ tï¿½ng, rui mï¿½ vï¿½ vï¿½ kï¿½o lï¿½m b?ng g?. L?p ngï¿½i ï¿½m d??ng, trï¿½n mï¿½i ngï¿½i cï¿½ ??p l??ng long ch?u m?t nguy?t. Ngï¿½i chï¿½nh t?m cï¿½ treo m?t s? b?c ??i t?, hoï¿½nh phi nh?: Quang L?u ??c, T?i Linh T?, Th??ng ??ng T?i Linh. Bï¿½n h??ng ï¿½n x?p ki?u tam quan vï¿½ quay v? h??ng Nam. T? ngoï¿½i vï¿½o lï¿½ bï¿½n h?i ??ng, n?i th? 3 ti?n hi?n lï¿½ ??c t? h? Cao, h? Phan, h? Th?a, trï¿½n bï¿½n cï¿½ bï¿½t h??ng s? c? gia l??n, b? l? h??ng b?ng ??ng. M?t b? ?ï¿½i nh? g?m 3 cï¿½i b?ng g? ???c s?n son thi?p vï¿½ng. Sau cï¿½ng lï¿½ long ngai lï¿½m b?ng g?, hai bï¿½n cï¿½ 2 giï¿½ binh khï¿½. Bï¿½n th? Thï¿½nh ? gi?a cï¿½ ??t t??ng Thï¿½nh Nguy?n Ph?c mï¿½u vï¿½ng, ??u ??i m?, m?c ï¿½o quan mï¿½u ??. Bï¿½n cu?i cï¿½ng g?i lï¿½ h?u cung, cï¿½ ??t l? h??ng b?ng ??ng, hai h?c ch?u hai bï¿½n. Ti?p ??n lï¿½ ï¿½Long ngai giao ? th?n v?ï¿½, trï¿½n long ngai lï¿½ ï¿½o quan, m? quan mï¿½u vï¿½ng. Trong long ngai lï¿½ hï¿½n s?c l?n, trong hï¿½n s?c tr??c kia cï¿½ 10 ??o s?c hi?n nay ch? cï¿½n l?i 2 ??o s?c. 2.3. Nh?ng ngï¿½y l? chï¿½nh trong n?m ??n th? ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c ? lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ ???c nhï¿½n dï¿½n quanh n?m h??ng khï¿½i ph?ng th? v?i ni?m tin vï¿½ ??c v?ng thï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng H?i s? ch? che, b?o v? vï¿½ phï¿½ tr? cho nhï¿½n dï¿½n v? cu?c s?ng bï¿½nh an, no ?? c?a c? lï¿½ng bi?n. Cï¿½c ngï¿½y l? chï¿½nh trong n?m nh?: Xuï¿½n Thu nh? k? t? l?, cï¿½c ngï¿½y k? nh?t nh? ngï¿½y sï¿½c v?ng, ngï¿½y t?t ?oan ng?, ngï¿½y ch?p lï¿½ng 7/12, ngï¿½y gi? Thï¿½nh 16/4 ï¿½m l?ch. Ngï¿½y gi? Thï¿½nh 16/4 ï¿½m l?ch lï¿½ ngï¿½y gi? l?n nh?t c?a lï¿½ng. X?a kia nï¿½ kï¿½o dï¿½i 3 ngï¿½y vï¿½ cï¿½ ph?n h?i v?i nhi?u trï¿½ ch?i, trï¿½ di?n dï¿½n gian, vï¿½o ngï¿½y nï¿½y lï¿½ng th??ng lï¿½ m? Bï¿½, m? Trï¿½u. Ngï¿½y nay thï¿½ ?ï¿½ gi?n ?i r?t nhi?u, ch? di?n ra trong m?t ngï¿½y vï¿½ khï¿½ng cï¿½n ph?n h?i n?a, l? v?t c?ng gi?m ?i ?ï¿½ng k?. Bï¿½n h??ng ï¿½n ??t ? tr??c sï¿½n ??n, g?m 3 bï¿½n lï¿½ tam b?o Ph?t ? trï¿½n cï¿½ng, tam b?o Thï¿½nh ? gi?a, tam b?o quan ? d??i. Cï¿½ r??c ki?u vï¿½ bï¿½t h??ng ? bï¿½n Thï¿½nh n?i h?u cung ra bï¿½n ngoï¿½i. Nghi l? b?t ??u b?ng l? r??c ki?u xu?ng chï¿½a ??ng Bï¿½ng, ?ï¿½y ???c xem lï¿½ l? th?nh ??c Ph?t. Sau ?ï¿½ lï¿½ l? th?nh c?u ??c Thï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c vï¿½ cï¿½c quan v?n v? theo h?u v? d? l?. Sau l? th?nh lï¿½ v?n cï¿½ng Thï¿½nh trong ?ï¿½ cï¿½ ?o?n: ï¿½C?n dï¿½ng l? b?c chi nghi h??ng ??ng qu? ph?m k? nh?t l? khï¿½nh h?i c? truy?n. C?m chiï¿½u cï¿½o vu t?i linh ngï¿½i ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng hi?u tr?ch Hoï¿½ng H?p Qu?ng Nhu?n tr?c v?y d??c b?o Trung V?ng th??ng th??ng ??ng th?n cï¿½ng v?n vï¿½ linh quan v?y ti?n ta kï¿½nh th?nhï¿½. Ti?p ?ï¿½ lï¿½ cï¿½c nghi l? c?u ng?, c?u nï¿½ng c?u danh, c?u buï¿½n bï¿½n. Trong ?ï¿½ L? c?u ng? lï¿½ l? chï¿½nh vï¿½ thu hut s? quan tï¿½m chï¿½ ï¿½ c?ng nh? s? thï¿½nh tï¿½m cï¿½ng bï¿½i c?a toï¿½n th? ng? dï¿½n trong lï¿½ng. Nghi l? cu?i cï¿½ng cua bu?i l? lï¿½ l? t?ng thuy?n. 2.4. ï¿½ ngh?a, giï¿½ tr? t?c th? ??c Thï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c ï¿½ ngh?a l?ch s?: Thï¿½ng qua ti?u s? nhï¿½n v?t Nguy?n Ph?c vï¿½ t?c th? c?a ï¿½ng chï¿½ng ta cï¿½ th? hi?u thï¿½m m?t ph?n nï¿½o ?ï¿½ v? ng??i th?c c?a ï¿½ng, v? cï¿½ng lao mï¿½ ï¿½ng ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p cho ??t n??c. ??ng th?i nh?ng t? li?u v? Nguy?n Ph?c cï¿½n lï¿½ nh?ng c? li?u hï¿½ng h?n ph?n ï¿½nh m?t th?i k? ??u tranh oanh li?t c?a dï¿½n t?c ta ?? b?o v? biï¿½n c??ng b? c?i c?a ??t n??c vï¿½ m? ??u cho quï¿½ trï¿½nh m? c?i v? ph??ng Nam c?a dï¿½n t?c ta. Qua ?ï¿½ ph?n ï¿½nh thï¿½m v? nh?ng chï¿½nh sï¿½ch lu?t phï¿½p c?a tri?u ?ï¿½nh phong ki?n th?i H?ng ??c lï¿½ r?t nghiï¿½m ng?t. Giï¿½ tr? v?n hï¿½a tinh th?n, tï¿½m linh: T? trong sï¿½u th?m ti?m th?c c?a nhï¿½n dï¿½n Nguy?n Ph?c lï¿½ v? Thï¿½nh, v? thï¿½nh hoï¿½ng lï¿½ng ngï¿½i lï¿½ bi?u t??ng v? quy?n l?c vï¿½ s?c m?nh tinh th?n chi ph?i c? ??i s?ng tinh th?n l?n v?t ch?t c?a h?. Tï¿½n ng??ng th? Nguy?n Ph?c v?n lï¿½ nhu c?u tï¿½m linh khï¿½ng th? thi?u ??i v?i ng??i dï¿½n n?i ?ï¿½y. Trong tï¿½m th?c h? v?n tin r?ng v?i s?c m?nh vï¿½ s? thiï¿½ng liï¿½ng cao c? ??c Thï¿½nh v?n dï¿½i theo, giï¿½m sï¿½t m?i hï¿½nh ??ng, vi?c lï¿½m c?a m?i ng??i vï¿½ c? c?ng ??ng lï¿½ng bi?n. Phï¿½ h?, ch? che cho h? trong cu?c s?ng ??i th??ng vï¿½ h??ng h? t?i nh?ng ?i?u t?t ??p, cao c? nhï¿½n v?n. Nghi l? c?a t?c th? g?n li?n v?i l? h?i c?u ng?, c?u mï¿½a c?a ng??i dï¿½n lï¿½ng ven bi?n Phï¿½ Xï¿½. Nï¿½ ?ï¿½ ph?n ï¿½nh tï¿½m t? nguy?n v?ng c?a nhï¿½n dï¿½n v? m?t cu?c s?ng bï¿½nh yï¿½n, no ??, bi?n l?ng tr?i yï¿½n, ra kh?i vï¿½o l?ng ???c thu?n bu?n xuï¿½i giï¿½, ?ï¿½nh b?t ???c nhi?u cï¿½ tï¿½m. Nï¿½ cï¿½n ph?n ï¿½nh cï¿½ch ?ng x? dung hï¿½a c?a con ng??i n?i ?ï¿½y v?i mï¿½i tr??ng t? nhiï¿½n, mï¿½i tr??ng xï¿½ h?i vï¿½ mï¿½i tr??ng tï¿½m linh, gi?a Th?n, Ng??i vï¿½ Bi?n. ?ï¿½y cï¿½n lï¿½ d?p nhï¿½n dï¿½n trong lï¿½ng ???c ngh? ng?i th? gi?n t?o l?p th? cï¿½n b?ng trong ??i s?ng tinh th?n sau m?t n?m lï¿½m ?n v?t v? trï¿½n bi?n. Nghi l? cï¿½n lï¿½ ?? mang l?i ni?n vui, s? h??ng ph?n cho m?i thï¿½nh viï¿½n trong c?ng ??ng lï¿½ng bi?n ?? b??c vï¿½o m?t chu k? m?i. Giï¿½ tr? du l?ch: C?n ph?i khai thï¿½c, lï¿½m giï¿½u, phï¿½t huy cï¿½c giï¿½ tr? c?a di tï¿½ch vï¿½ t?c th? nï¿½y ?ï¿½ng nh? tinh th?n c?a h?i ngh? trung ??ng V khï¿½a VIII ?ï¿½ ?? ra. V?i l?i th? lï¿½ giï¿½p v?i hai khu du l?ch S?m S?n vï¿½ Hï¿½ng S?n, cï¿½ng v?i nï¿½ lï¿½ vi?c m? r?ng kinh doanh, khai thï¿½c du l?ch vï¿½o ??a ph?n c?a lï¿½ng. Theo ?ï¿½ ngï¿½i ??n s? lï¿½ ?i?m th?m quan c?a khu khï¿½ch m?i khi ??n n?i ?ï¿½y. Ngï¿½i ??n lï¿½ m?t khï¿½ng gian thiï¿½ng liï¿½ng, t?nh l?ng khï¿½c xa v?i khï¿½ng khï¿½ ?n ï¿½o, nï¿½o nhi?t ? bï¿½n ngoï¿½i, l?i ???c bao ph? b?i m?t mï¿½u xanh c?a cï¿½y c?i cï¿½ng lï¿½m cho ngï¿½i ??n thï¿½m phï¿½n c? kï¿½nh. Ng??i th?c hï¿½nh tï¿½n ng??ng hay du khï¿½ch ai c?ng mu?n ghï¿½ l?i ?? cho tï¿½m h?n ???c thanh th?n, bï¿½nh yï¿½n. M?t s? khuy?n ngh?: Th? nh?t, hi?n t?i gian ti?n ???ng c?a ngï¿½i ??n lï¿½ nhï¿½ v?n hï¿½a c?a ??n v? thï¿½n 8. ?ï¿½ lï¿½ m?t s? ??i ngh?ch gi?a m?t bï¿½n lï¿½ khï¿½ng gian linh thiï¿½ng, n?i th? v? anh hï¿½ng, ng??i cï¿½ cï¿½ng v?i ??t n??c v?i nhï¿½n dï¿½n v?i m?t bï¿½n lï¿½ n?i vui ch?i gi?i trï¿½, h?i h?p cï¿½ng vi?c c?a cï¿½n b? nhï¿½n dï¿½n thï¿½n 8. Thi?t ngh? r?ng ?? trï¿½ l?i cho ngï¿½i ??n m?t khï¿½ng gian t?nh l?ng, linh thiï¿½ng nh? v?n cï¿½ c?a nï¿½. Th? hai, Nï¿½n khï¿½i ph?c m?t s? trï¿½ ch?i, trï¿½ di?n dï¿½n gian trong ngï¿½y gi? Thï¿½nh 16 thï¿½nh 4 ?? ph?c v? nhï¿½n dï¿½n vï¿½ du khï¿½ch. Th? ba, Chï¿½nh quy?n ??a ph??ng c?n ??y m?nh vi?c v?n ??ng cï¿½c h? dï¿½n s?ng khu v?c phï¿½a Tï¿½y c?a ngï¿½i ??n ?? xï¿½c ti?n vi?c ??i ??t, m? r?ng khï¿½ng gian cho ngï¿½i ??n. Th? t?, Chï¿½nh quy?n ??a ph??ng vï¿½ b?n thï¿½n lï¿½ng ph?i cï¿½ bi?n phï¿½p tuyï¿½n truy?n, giï¿½o d?c truy?n th?ng quï¿½ h??ng t?i cï¿½c th? h? hï¿½m nay vï¿½ mai sau ?? t?c th? ???c tr??ng t?n mï¿½i mï¿½i v?i th?i gian vï¿½ lï¿½ng bi?n nï¿½y. K?T LU?N Do ?i?u ki?n t? nhiï¿½n, mï¿½i tr??ng khai thï¿½c g?n li?n v?i bi?n c?, ph??ng th?c s?n xu?t l?i l?c h?u, nh? bï¿½ nï¿½n ?ï¿½ ?nh h??ng, tï¿½c ??ng t?i ??i s?ng tinh th?n, tï¿½n ng??ng, tï¿½m linh c?a c? dï¿½n vï¿½ng bi?n nï¿½y. T?c th? vï¿½ nghi l? ??c Thï¿½nh Nguy?n Ph?c ? lï¿½ng Phï¿½ Xï¿½ g?n li?n v?i l? h?i c?u ng?, c?u mï¿½a, c?u bï¿½nh an c?a c? dï¿½n lï¿½ng bi?n n?i ?ï¿½y. T?c th? nï¿½y cï¿½n ph?n ï¿½nh cï¿½ch ?ng x? dung hï¿½a c?a con ng??i n?i ?ï¿½y v?i mï¿½i tr??ng t? nhiï¿½n, mï¿½i tr??ng tï¿½m linh. T?c th? cï¿½n m?ng giï¿½ tr? nhï¿½n v?n sï¿½u s?c, giï¿½ tr? ??o ??c cao c?. T?c th? lï¿½ s? suy tï¿½n ng??i anh hï¿½ng dï¿½n t?c, ng??i cï¿½ cï¿½ng v?i ??t n??c lï¿½n b?c Thï¿½nh th?n, ?? r?i ph?n ï¿½nh s?c m?nh c? k?t c?ng ??ng, th? hi?n ??o lï¿½ ï¿½u?ng n??c nh? ngu?nï¿½, tr? v? v?i c?i ngu?n dï¿½n t?c c?a nhï¿½n dï¿½n. Trong ?i?u ki?n l?ch s? m?i c?a ngï¿½i lï¿½ng vï¿½ t?c th? c?n phï¿½t huy giï¿½ tr? c?a nï¿½ trong vi?c phï¿½t tri?n du l?ch. Bï¿½n canh ?ï¿½ c?ng ph?i l?u ï¿½ ??n vi?c b?o t?n nh?ng giï¿½ tr? v?n hï¿½a c? truy?n, ??c s?c c?a t?c th?. Tï¿½I LI?U THAM KH?O 1. Ban qu?n lï¿½ di tï¿½ch ??n th? ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c , ï¿½V?n cï¿½ng Thï¿½nhï¿½. 2. Nguy?n Xuï¿½n H??ng (2009), ï¿½Tï¿½n ng??ng c? dï¿½n ven bi?n Qu?ng Nam ?ï¿½ N?ngï¿½,Nxb T? ?i?n bï¿½ch khoa vï¿½ Vi?n v?n hï¿½a. 3. Ninh Vi?t Giao (2001), ï¿½V?n hï¿½a lï¿½ng bi?n x? Ngh?ï¿½, T?p chï¿½ v?n hï¿½a ngh? thu?t. 4. Ngï¿½ S? Liï¿½n (2004), ï¿½??i Vi?t s? kï¿½ toï¿½n th?ï¿½, Nxb V?n hï¿½a thï¿½ng tin. 4. Lï¿½ Xuï¿½n Quang (1996) ï¿½Th? th?n ? Vi?t Namï¿½ t?p 1, Nxb H?i Phï¿½ng. 6. S? v?n hï¿½a thï¿½ng tin ï¿½ b?o t?ng t?ng h?p t?nh Thanh Hï¿½a (1997), ï¿½Lï¿½ l?ch di tï¿½ch l?ch s? v?n hï¿½a ??n th? ?ï¿½ng H?i ??i V??ng Nguy?n Ph?c thï¿½n Phï¿½ Xï¿½, xï¿½ Qu?ng ??i, huy?n Qu?ng X??ng, t?nh Thanh Hï¿½aï¿½, B?n ?ï¿½nh mï¿½y. 7. Ngï¿½ ??c Th?nh (2000), ï¿½V?n hï¿½a dï¿½n gian lï¿½ng ven bi?nï¿½, Nxb KHXH Hï¿½ N?i. 8. Hoï¿½ng Minh T??ng (2005), ï¿½T?c th? th?n ??c C??c ? lï¿½ng Nï¿½i, S?m S?m, Thanh Hï¿½aï¿½, Nxb V?n hï¿½a dï¿½n t?c. 
?? tï¿½i NCKH ??t gi?i Nh?t H?i ngh? SV NCKH khoa Ng? V?n n?m 2010:THI PHï¿½P CHï¿½N KHï¿½NG TRONG ï¿½TRUY?N NG?N TRONG Lï¿½NG Bï¿½N TAYï¿½ C?A KAWABATA YASUNARI VACUUM PROSODY USED IN ï¿½PALMOF THE HAND STORIESï¿½, A WORK OF KAWABATA YASUNARIï¿½S SVTH: Tr??ng Th? H?ng Cï¿½c L?p 06CVH1, Khoa Ng? v?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng GVHD: ThS. Nguy?n Ph??ng Khï¿½nh Khoa Ng? v?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng Tï¿½M T?T ??n v?i v?n ch??ng c?a Kawabata vï¿½ g?p g? g??ng m?t ?n gi?u nhi?u ?i?u thï¿½ v?  truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay ï¿½ ï¿½tï¿½c ph?m c?a chï¿½n khï¿½ngï¿½ th? hi?n h?t s?c ??c ?ï¿½o, tinh t? vï¿½ ?n ch?a tï¿½m h?n Nh?t B?n ? nh?ng khï¿½a c?nh th? gi?i c?a nh?ng chi?c g??ng soi, th?i gian c?a nh?ng kho?nh kh?c, khï¿½ng gian ï¿½v? ?cï¿½, th? gi?i nhï¿½n v?t vï¿½ cï¿½i k?t l?ng. M?t phï¿½t hi?n khï¿½ lï¿½ thï¿½ lï¿½ s? g?p g? gi?a Kawabata vï¿½ Hemingway trong nguyï¿½n lï¿½ sï¿½ng t?o. Nï¿½i cï¿½ch khï¿½c, truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay c?ng chï¿½nh lï¿½ m?t t?ng b?ng trï¿½i, m?t ph?n n?i, b?y ph?n chï¿½m, ch?a ??ng s?c cï¿½ng phï¿½ m?nh m?ï¿½ ABSTRACT Reading Kawabataï¿½s proses, especially PalmoftheHand Stories ï¿½ ï¿½a masterpiece of understatementï¿½, which is originally and subtly presented with the essence of the Japanese mind, in five aspects the world of mirrors, the time of moments, ï¿½Sea shellï¿½ spaces, the world of characters and the open endings. Another interesting finding is the similarities in the theory of creation between Kawabata and Hemingway. In other words, PalmoftheHand Stories is a floating iceberg, with only oneeighth of it being above water, and hence holding enormous powerï¿½ M? ??U Nh?c ??n khuï¿½n m?t v?n ch??ng Nh?t, khï¿½ng th? khï¿½ng nï¿½i ??n Kawabata Yasunari vï¿½ truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay. Cu?c hï¿½nh h??ng vï¿½o th? gi?i truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay c?a v?n hï¿½o Kawabata lï¿½ thï¿½m m?t l?n n?a tï¿½m v? v?i nh?ng nï¿½t truy?n th?ng c?i r? trong n?n v?n ch??ng Phï¿½ Tang, v? ??t vï¿½ ng??i x? s? M?t tr?i m?c. Chï¿½nh b?i v?y, ng??i vi?t ch?n ?? tï¿½i: ï¿½Thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ng trong truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay c?a Kawabata Yasunariï¿½ ?? nghiï¿½n c?u v?i hi v?ng ?i vï¿½o sï¿½u h?n th? gi?i Phï¿½ Tang b?ng chi?c g??ng v?n ch??ng. 2. L?ch s? v?n ?? nghiï¿½n c?u Kawabata sinh ra t? x? s? M?t tr?i m?c, lï¿½ nhï¿½ v?n ??ng th?i lï¿½ s? gi?  b?ng ngï¿½i bï¿½t v?n ch??ng c?a mï¿½nh ï¿½ng ?ï¿½ k?t n?i nh?ng con ng??i, nh?ng m?nh h?n, nh?ng ngh? suyï¿½khi?n cho v?n h?c tr? nï¿½n g?n g?i, ???c yï¿½u thï¿½ch vï¿½ khï¿½m phï¿½ m?t cï¿½ch mï¿½nh li?t. B?i th?, Kawabata Yasunari vï¿½ nh?ng ??a con tinh th?n c?a ï¿½ng luï¿½n cï¿½ s?c hï¿½t m?nh m? khï¿½ng ch? v?i ??c gi?, v?i ng??i yï¿½u v?n mï¿½ cï¿½n ??i v?i c? gi?i phï¿½ bï¿½nh v?n h?c uy tï¿½n. * V? Kawabata Yasunari vï¿½ ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ Nhï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u Nh?t Chiï¿½u lï¿½ m?t trong s? nh?ng ng??i dï¿½nh r?t nhi?u tï¿½m huy?t, tï¿½nh yï¿½u vï¿½ bï¿½t l?c cho v?n h?c x? s? Phï¿½ Tang, ??c bi?t cho v?n hï¿½o Kawabata. Nh?t Chiï¿½u t?ng nh?n ??nh: ï¿½Th?c ch?t c?a th?m m? chi?c g??ng soi lï¿½ h?n th? khao khï¿½t v??n t?i ?i?u ch?a bi?t trong Kawabata ?ï¿½ v?n d?ng th?n tï¿½nh m? c?m ph??ng ?ï¿½ng, m? c?m Nh?t B?n vï¿½ c? m? c?m hi?n ??i, ph?n ï¿½nh t?t c? trong m?t gi?t s??ng sï¿½ng t?o ??y b?n l?nhï¿½[30, tr.92]. GS.L?u ??c Trung lï¿½ m?t trong s? nh?ng nhï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u cï¿½ cï¿½ng l?n trong gi?i thi?u v?n h?c Nh?t, ??c bi?t v? v?n hï¿½o Kawabata ??n ??c gi? Vi?t. Theo ï¿½ng, phong cï¿½ch ngh? thu?t c?a Kawabata ???c th? hi?n ? ï¿½cï¿½i ch?t tr? tï¿½nh sï¿½u l?ng, n?i bu?n ï¿½m d?u ?ï¿½ ph?i ch?ng Kawabata ?ï¿½ k? th?a ???c t? trong dï¿½ng v?n h?c ï¿½n? tï¿½nhï¿½ trong th?i ??i Heian (794 ï¿½ 1192), t? tï¿½c ph?m Genji Monogatari c?a Murasaki Sibiku (978 ï¿½ 1044) ??y ch?t bi c?mï¿½[43, tr.47]. Trong chuyï¿½n lu?n ï¿½V?n hï¿½a Nh?t B?n vï¿½ Yasunari Kawabataï¿½, TS.?ï¿½o Th? Thu H?ng kh?ng ??nh ï¿½v? ??p, s? ??c ?ï¿½o trong ngh? thu?t k? chuy?n c?a Kawabataï¿½ vï¿½ ï¿½nh?ng ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p to l?n t? cï¿½ch k? c?a Kawabata ??i v?i k? thu?t t? s? c?a v?n ch??ng nhï¿½n lo?i, ??c bi?t lï¿½ cï¿½ch k? hi?n ??i c?a th? k? XXï¿½[8, tr.7]. Cï¿½ m?t s? ï¿½t bï¿½i nghiï¿½n c?u dï¿½nh riï¿½ng v? truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay, ?ï¿½ b??c ??u m? vï¿½o cï¿½nh c?a khï¿½ kh?n nh?ng thï¿½ v? c?a Kawabata Yasunari. Peter Metevelis trong bï¿½i vi?t ï¿½D?ch nh?ng truy?n ï¿½trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ c?a Kawabataï¿½ (d?ch gi? ?inh Quang Trung) b?ng nh?ng d?n ch?ng sinh ??ng, ï¿½ng kh?ng ??nh: ï¿½Nh?ng truy?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay khï¿½ phong phï¿½ v? hï¿½nh ?nh, tï¿½nh cï¿½ch, s? tinh t?, v? ??p, tï¿½nh hï¿½i h??c vï¿½ v? duyï¿½n dï¿½ngï¿½ vï¿½ nh?n m?nh m?t s? ?i?m v?a nï¿½u d? dï¿½ng b? phï¿½ v? b?i ï¿½b?n d?ch l?ng l?oï¿½[27, tr.166]. Tr?n Thu H?ng v?i truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay ï¿½ cï¿½i nhï¿½n th?m m? trong su?t kh?ng ??nh: ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay v?a ch?a ??ng h?n th? ï¿½ng, v?a th? hi?n tï¿½i n?ng c?a ï¿½ng m?t cï¿½ch t?p trung vï¿½ cï¿½ ?ï¿½cï¿½[47]. C?ng trï¿½n gï¿½c ?? thi phï¿½p h?c, nh?ng ï¿½??c ?i?m thi phï¿½p truy?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay c?a Yasunari Kawabataï¿½ ???c Hoï¿½ng Long nhï¿½n theo ph??ng di?n hï¿½nh ?nh trung tï¿½m lï¿½ ï¿½ng??i l? khï¿½ch nh? k? hï¿½nh h??ng thï¿½n ph?n, ki?m tï¿½m cï¿½i ??p vï¿½ hï¿½nh ?nh ng??i n? lï¿½ hi?n thï¿½n cho cï¿½i ??p mï¿½ ng??i l? khï¿½ch muï¿½n ??i theo d?uï¿½[1, tr.1079]. Tï¿½m l?i, cï¿½ th? th?y tï¿½nh hï¿½nh nghiï¿½n c?u v? Kawabata Yasunari ? Vi?t Nam nh? m?t b?c tranh t??ng ??i nhi?u mï¿½u s?c v?i nh?ng m?ng sï¿½ng t?i, ??m nh?t khï¿½c nhau. * V? ï¿½Thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ngï¿½ Phan Nh?t Chiï¿½u, nhï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u v? v?n hï¿½a  v?n h?c Nh?t g?o c?i, lï¿½ ng??i ï¿½hi?u v?n h?c Nh?t kï¿½ l?ï¿½ ?ï¿½ dï¿½ng khï¿½i ni?m ï¿½thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ngï¿½ trong r?t nhi?u cï¿½ng trï¿½nh, bï¿½i vi?t kh?o c?u v? v?n h?c Nh?t. Trong bï¿½i vi?t ï¿½Kawabata, ng??i c?u r?i cï¿½i ??pï¿½ ??ng l?n ??u trï¿½n t?p chï¿½ V?n, n?m 1991, Nh?t Chiï¿½u ?ï¿½ cï¿½ng b? cï¿½ch g?i thi phï¿½p c?a Kawabata lï¿½ ï¿½thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ngï¿½: Qua ti?ng th?m thï¿½ c?a trï¿½i tim ho?c g??ng m?t ng??i h?p h?iï¿½Kawabata ?? cho ph?n khï¿½ng nï¿½i chï¿½m sï¿½u vï¿½o trong ta trong m?t thi phï¿½p cï¿½ th? g?i lï¿½ ï¿½thi phï¿½p c?a chï¿½n khï¿½ngï¿½[4, tr159]. V?i Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay ï¿½ cï¿½i nhï¿½n th?m m? trong su?t, Tr?n Thu H?ng kh?ng ??nh: ï¿½Thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ng (ch? c?a Nh?t Chiï¿½u) trong cï¿½c truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay c?ng tr? thï¿½nh ??c tr?ng ngh? thu?t quan tr?ng. Nh?ng kho?nh kh?c thoï¿½ng qua mï¿½ nh? khï¿½ng trong cu?c ??i, nh?ng kho?ng tr?ng chi?m trong b?c tranh th?y m?c ch?m phï¿½ qua ngï¿½i bï¿½t c?a Kawabata cï¿½ s?c ï¿½m ?nh l?nï¿½[47]. V?i nh?ng cï¿½ng trï¿½nh mang tï¿½nh g?i m? c?ng h??ng v?i ni?m yï¿½u thï¿½ch v?n h?c Nh?t, ng??i vi?t mong mu?n ?ï¿½o sï¿½u h?n vï¿½o th? gi?i Kawabata Yasunari ? chï¿½nh m?ng thi phï¿½p, mï¿½ c? th? lï¿½ ï¿½Thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ngï¿½ (ch? dï¿½ng c?a Nh?t Chiï¿½u) ???c th? hi?n qua nh?ng tï¿½c ph?m ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ v?i ?? tï¿½i: ï¿½Thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ng trong truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay c?a Kawabata Yasunariï¿½ ?? thï¿½m m?t l?n khï¿½m phï¿½ vï¿½ng ??t v?n ch??ng Nh?t. Lï¿½ s? kh?i g?i t?ng lï¿½ ph? ?? gï¿½p thï¿½m chï¿½t ï¿½nh sï¿½ng soi r?i ph?n h?n c?t c?a Kawabata! 4. ??i t??ng vï¿½ ph?m vi nghiï¿½n c?u ?? tï¿½i ??i t??ng nghiï¿½n c?u: Nh?ng bi?u hi?n c?a thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ng trong nh?ng tï¿½c ph?m ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ c?a Kawabata Yasunari. Ph?m vi nghiï¿½n c?u: Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay in trong ï¿½Yasunari Kawabata tuy?n t?p tï¿½c ph?mï¿½ (g?m 46 tï¿½c ph?m). ?? th?c hi?n ?? tï¿½i nï¿½y, ng??i vi?t ?ï¿½ s? d?ng k?t h?p nhi?u ph??ng phï¿½p nghiï¿½n c?u sau ?ï¿½y: th?ng kï¿½ ï¿½ phï¿½n lo?i, miï¿½u t?, phï¿½n tï¿½ch ï¿½ t?ng h?p, ??i chi?u ï¿½ so sï¿½nh. 6. C?u trï¿½c ?? tï¿½i nghiï¿½n c?u Ngoï¿½i ph?n m? ??u, ph?n k?t lu?n, ph?n tï¿½i li?u tham kh?o vï¿½ ph?n ph? l?c (5 b?ng ph? l?c), ?? tï¿½i g?m 3 ch??ng: Ch??ng 1: Kawabata vï¿½ ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ Ch??ng 2: Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay ï¿½ ï¿½tï¿½c ph?m c?a chï¿½n khï¿½ngï¿½ Ch??ng 3: Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay ï¿½ g??ng m?t ??p trong dï¿½ng ch?y v?n ch??ng N?I DUNG CH??NG 1: KAWABATA Vï¿½ ï¿½TRUY?N NG?N TRONG Lï¿½NG Bï¿½N TAYï¿½ 1.1. Kawabata ï¿½ ng??i ngh? s? vï¿½ nh?ng kho?nh kh?c thi ca Ng??c dï¿½ng th?i gian tr? v? v?i vï¿½ng ??t Nh?t, t?i Osaka, n?m 1899 m?t con ng??i ?ï¿½ ???c sinh ra v?i ??nh m?nh cï¿½ ??n, v?i n?i ?au th??ng trï¿½n l?p nh?ng ?ï¿½ ?? l?i cho ??i nh?ng b?n tï¿½nh ca v? cï¿½i ??p ngï¿½n lï¿½n trong nh?ng trang v?n th?m ??m bu?n th??ng vï¿½ tinh t?, nh?y c?m vï¿½ mong manh. ï¿½ng lï¿½ ng??i ngh? s? mang tï¿½m h?n Nh?t B?n ï¿½ Kawabata Yasunari. 1.2. Kawabata vï¿½ ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ ï¿½ cu?c g?p g? ??y duyï¿½n n? 1.2.1. H?n th? c?a m?t th?i tu?i tr? ï¿½Tu?i tr? trong ??i ng??i nhï¿½ v?n th??ng dï¿½nh cho th? ca, cï¿½n tï¿½i, thay vï¿½ th? ca, tï¿½i vi?t nh?ng tï¿½c ph?m nh? g?i lï¿½ truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay. H?n th? c?a nh?ng ngï¿½y tr? tu?i c?a tï¿½i s?ng sï¿½t trong nh?ng cï¿½u chuy?n ?yï¿½ï¿½  L?i t? b?ch c?a Kawabata Yasunari ?ï¿½ nï¿½i lï¿½n nhi?u ?i?u r?ng chï¿½nh nh?ng tï¿½c ph?m truy?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay v?a lï¿½ n?i b?c b?ch v?a lï¿½ ch?n n??ng nï¿½u tï¿½m h?n ï¿½ngï¿½ 1.2.2. ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ c?a Kawabata Truy?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay ï¿½ cï¿½i tï¿½n ??y ?n ï¿½ thï¿½ v?, v?i cï¿½ch g?i tï¿½n ??y hï¿½nh t??ng, b?t giï¿½c ta hï¿½nh dung hai bï¿½n tay nh? xinh ?ang ï¿½p vï¿½o nhau ?? t?o ra m?t kho?ng khï¿½ng nh? bï¿½ nh?ng d??ng nh? cï¿½ kh? n?ng dung ch?a trong lï¿½ng c? th? gi?i v?n v?t; nï¿½ lï¿½ lï¿½t c?t c?a kho?nh kh?c, lï¿½ kho?ng ng?ng ??ng, lï¿½ chi?c chï¿½a khï¿½a ?? m? cï¿½nh c?aï¿½Cï¿½ th? nï¿½ r?t xa v?i, nh?ng cï¿½ khi ch? c?n xï¿½e lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay ra, b?n ?ï¿½ b?t g?p vï¿½ t?n th? gi?iï¿½ CH??NG 2: TRUY?N NG?N TRONG Lï¿½NG Bï¿½N TAY ï¿½ ï¿½Tï¿½C PH?M C?A CHï¿½N KHï¿½NGï¿½ 2.1. Th? gi?i c?a nh?ng chi?c g??ng soi C?nh v?t, con ng??i vï¿½ tï¿½nh yï¿½u hi?n lï¿½n trong su?t, m? ?o qua nh?ng chi?c g??ng soi. Th? gi?i ?y th?c mï¿½ nh? khï¿½ng th?c, m?i cï¿½i ??p bi?n ?o nh? tan vï¿½o h? khï¿½ng...Chï¿½nh s? giao thoa gi?a th?c vï¿½ ?o c?a hai th? gi?i cï¿½ng t?n t?i vï¿½ soi chi?u l?n nhau ?ï¿½ m? ra c? m?t kho?ng khï¿½ng vï¿½ t?n. 2.2. Th?i gian c?a nh?ng kho?nh kh?c Kho?nh kh?c lï¿½ ï¿½kho?ng th?i gian h?t s?c ng?nï¿½[21, tr.779] nh?ng l?i cï¿½ kh? n?ng m? ra nh?ng rung ??ng vï¿½ biï¿½n, nï¿½o ??ng th?ng tr?m. Nhï¿½ ngh? s? Kawabata Yasunari t? ra h?t s?c tï¿½i tï¿½nh trong vi?c n?m b?t vï¿½ tï¿½i hi?n nh?ng kho?nh kh?c ??c sï¿½ng. 2.3. Khï¿½ng gian ï¿½v? ?cï¿½ nh?ng ch?a ??y sï¿½ng giï¿½ Trong khï¿½ng gian c?a c?n nhï¿½, c?a gi?c m?, th?m chï¿½ ? khu ngh?a ??a, nh?ng nhï¿½n v?t c?a Kawabata ???c s?ng v?i lï¿½ng mï¿½nh, ???c b?c l? h?t nh?ng n?i ni?m riï¿½ng tï¿½y v? cu?c ??i, v? thï¿½n ph?n vï¿½ tï¿½nh yï¿½uï¿½Gi?ng nh? hï¿½nh ?nh gi?t s??ng, chi?c lï¿½, vï¿½ sï¿½t?t c? ??u bï¿½ nh? nh?ng ch?a ??ng chi?u sï¿½u c?a ??i d??ng, b??c ?i c?a th?i gianï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay lï¿½ m?t th? gi?i cï¿½ ?ï¿½c ??c bi?t, nh? m?t bi?n xanh t? gi?u mï¿½nh trong v? ?c muï¿½n mï¿½u... 2.4. Th? gi?i nhï¿½n v?t trong ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ V? ??p trinh b?ch, thu?n khi?t, nh?ng ti?ng lï¿½ng khï¿½t khao cï¿½i ??p c? mï¿½i ï¿½m ?nh trï¿½n t?ng trang Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay. ?ï¿½ lï¿½ th? gi?i c?a nh?ng ng??i l? khï¿½ch ?i tï¿½m cï¿½i ??p, lï¿½ nh?ng ng??i thi?u n?ï¿½khï¿½ng rï¿½ lai l?ch, khï¿½ng cï¿½ quï¿½ kh?ï¿½ 2.5. V? thanh vang ngï¿½n sau nh?ng cï¿½i k?t l?ng CH??NG 3: TRUY?N NG?N TRONG Lï¿½NG Bï¿½N TAY ï¿½ G??NG M?T ??P TRONG Dï¿½NG CH?Y V?N CH??NG 3.1. Hoï¿½i v?ng v? ??p truy?n th?ng vï¿½ nguyï¿½n lï¿½ m? h?c dï¿½n t?c Nh?t Ni?m bi c?m t? m?t nghï¿½n n?m tr??c trong tï¿½c ph?m Genji c?a n? s? Murasaki l?i ???c truy?n xu?ng ngï¿½i bï¿½t c?a Kawabata c?ng v?i nh?ng v? ??p truy?n th?ng ??c ?ï¿½o c?a dï¿½n t?c Nh?t: tï¿½ ï¿½o kimono d?u dï¿½ng, v?i lï¿½n h??ng trï¿½ ??o, v?i bï¿½ng hï¿½nh geishaï¿½?ï¿½ theo vï¿½o nh?ng trang v?n c?a Kawabata ?? lï¿½m nï¿½n m?t n?i hoï¿½i v?ng ??y ï¿½m ?nhï¿½ 3.2. ï¿½Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tayï¿½ hay lï¿½ ï¿½T?ng b?ng trï¿½iï¿½ Trong cu?c ??i cï¿½ nhi?u s? tï¿½nh c?, ??c bi?t s? g?p g? tï¿½nh c? trong v?n ch??ng lï¿½ s? ??ng ?i?u trong tï¿½m h?n c?a nh?ng ng??i ngh? s?. Trong nguyï¿½n lï¿½ sï¿½ng t?o c?a mï¿½nh, Kawabata v?i thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ng ?ï¿½ b?t g?p Hemingway v?i th? phï¿½p ï¿½t?ng b?ng trï¿½iï¿½. Kawabata Yasunari, v?i s? lao ??ng kh? h?nh trï¿½n nh?ng cï¿½nh ??ng ch? ngh?a ?? cho ra nh?ng tï¿½c ph?m ??p vï¿½ Bu?n ??m ch?t ï¿½ ?ï¿½ng, ??m ch?t Thi?n v?i bï¿½t phï¿½p hi?n ??i ï¿½ thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ng ?? gï¿½p ph?n xï¿½y nï¿½n chi?c ï¿½c?u n?i gi?a hai b? ?ï¿½ng ï¿½ Tï¿½yï¿½.
K?T LU?N T?t c? nh?ng gï¿½ hi?n h?u trong cu?c ??i nï¿½y ??u ???c chi?c g??ng mang tï¿½n chï¿½n khï¿½ng soi r?i, v?nh chi?u vï¿½ dung ch?a...B?i th? khï¿½ng lï¿½ ng?u nhiï¿½n h?a s? ng??i Hï¿½ Lan ï¿½ Van G?c phï¿½t hi?n ra m?t ?i?u h?t s?c tinh t?: ï¿½v?i ng??i Nh?t, b?c hi?n gi? ch? nï¿½n ?? tï¿½m vï¿½o vi?c suy ngh? v? t?ng ng?n c?ï¿½. Ng?n c? mang trong mï¿½nh s? k?t tinh tinh ch?t c?a ??t tr?i, nhï¿½n ng?m ng?n c? ta s? nghi?m th?y nhi?u ?i?u. C?ng nh? th?, truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay c?a Kawabata Yasunari ph?i ch?ng c?ng lï¿½ ng?n c? bï¿½ nh? gi?u mï¿½nh d??i ?ï¿½m cï¿½y to, lï¿½ gi?t s??ng v??ng mï¿½nh trï¿½n lï¿½, lï¿½ h?t cï¿½t gi?u mï¿½nh trong v? sï¿½t?t c? ?n ch?a c? m?t v? tr? vï¿½ th?y vï¿½ chungï¿½ Truy?n ng?n trong lï¿½ng bï¿½n tay v?i nh?ng chi?c g??ng soi chi?u v?n v?t, con ng??i, tï¿½nh yï¿½u; v?i nh?ng kho?nh kh?c ??c sï¿½ng, v?i nh?ng cï¿½i k?t l?ng m? h? m? ra khï¿½ng gian vï¿½ t?nï¿½?ï¿½ lï¿½ thi phï¿½p chï¿½n khï¿½ng Kawabata Yasunari dï¿½ng ?? soi chi?u t?t c? nh?ng gï¿½ hi?n h?u. A. Sï¿½CH [1] Nh?t Chiï¿½u (2003), Nh?t B?n trong chi?c g??ng soi, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c. [2] Nh?t Chiï¿½u (2009), V?n h?c Nh?t B?n t? kh?i th?y ??n 1868, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c. [3] ?ï¿½o Th? Thu H?ng (2007), V?n hï¿½a Nh?t B?n vï¿½ Yasunari Kawabata, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c. [4] Mitsuyoshi Numano (2009), ï¿½L?ch s? vï¿½ ??c tr?ng c?a V?n h?c Nh?t B?n ï¿½ T? mononoaware ??n kawaiiï¿½, H?i th?o v?n h?c Nh?t B?n. [5] T? sï¿½ch Nobel v?n h?c (2005), Yasunari Kawabata tuy?n t?p tï¿½c ph?m, Nxb Lao ??ng. B. T?P CHï¿½ [6] L?u ??c Trung (1999), ï¿½Thi phï¿½p ti?u thuy?t c?a Yasunari Kawabata nhï¿½ v?n l?n Nh?t B?nï¿½, T?p chï¿½ V?n h?c, (9/1999), tr.45 48. [7] V.V. ï¿½trinnic?p (1996), ï¿½Nh?ng quan ni?m th?m m? ??c ?ï¿½o v? ngh? thu?t c?a ng??i Nh?tï¿½, T?p chï¿½ V?n h?c, (5/1996), tr.60 63.
Cï¿½C THï¿½NG TIN KHï¿½C H? vï¿½ tï¿½n: Tr??ng Th? H?ng Cï¿½c ??a ch?: K01B/21 Lï¿½ Tr?ng T?n, T? 11, Tï¿½n Hï¿½a, An Khï¿½, Thanh Khï¿½, ?ï¿½ N?ng S? ?i?n tho?i liï¿½n h?: 01684.991.532 Email: chipchip308@yahoo.com Ch? kï¿½ c?a tï¿½c gi?:

?? tï¿½i NCKH ??t gi?i Nhï¿½ H?i ngh? SV NCKH khoa Ng? V?n n?m 2010:
NH?NG ??I M?I NGH? THU?T TI?U THUY?T C?A Lï¿½ L?U TRONG ï¿½CHUY?N Lï¿½NG CU?Iï¿½ RENOVATIONS OF LE LUUï¿½S NOVEL FEATURES IN ï¿½CUOI VILLAGEï¿½S TALEï¿½ SVTH: V? Xuï¿½n Tri?u L?p 06CVH2, Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng GVHD: PGS.TS. Nguy?n Phong Nam Khoa Ng? V?n, Tr??ng ??i h?c S? Ph?m, ??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng
Tï¿½M T?T B?ng nh?ng s? ph?n riï¿½ng, cu?c ??i riï¿½ng, qua ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½, Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ soi chi?u hi?n th?c d??i nhi?u chi?u kï¿½ch khï¿½c nhau. Nh?ng trang ti?u thuy?t c?a ï¿½ng vï¿½ th?, ï¿½nh hï¿½o quang d??ng nh? nh?t d?n vï¿½ cï¿½ khi m?t h?n. Thay vï¿½o ?ï¿½ lï¿½ ch?t ??i t? c?a m?i s? ph?n, m?i cu?c ??i v?i nh?ng l?m lem ??i th??ng nh?t. Vï¿½ ??y chï¿½nh lï¿½ m?t trong nh?ng ?i?u m?i m? mï¿½ Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p cho n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i. ABSTRACT By its own destinies, personal lives in ï¿½Cuoi villageï¿½s taleï¿½, Le Luu has reflected the reality in many different dimensions. The halo of his novelï¿½s pages, therefore, seems to gradually fade and sometimes clear away. Instead, that is the privacy of its own destinies, personal lives with spattering of daily life. And that is one of the new things that Le Luu contributes to Vietnam novels in the innovation era. M? ??U * Lï¿½ do ch?n ?? tï¿½i K? t? sau n?m 1975, V?n h?c Vi?t Nam ??ng tr??c nhu c?u m? r?ng h?n n?a trong vi?c ph?n ï¿½nh m?i m?t cu?c s?ng ?a d?ng vï¿½ ph?c t?p, khuynh h??ng s? thi vï¿½ c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n nh?t d?n vï¿½ ???c thay th? b?i c?m h?ng ??i t? th? s?. Cï¿½c v?n ?? v? cu?c s?ng, giï¿½ tr? ??o ??c, ï¿½ th?c dï¿½n ch?, v? cï¿½i tï¿½iï¿½ ?ï¿½ tr? thï¿½nh ch? ?? n?i b?t khi?n cho v?n h?c cï¿½ng ??i m?i m?nh m?. Ng??i ta hï¿½nh dung l?i con ng??i, thay ??i cï¿½ch miï¿½u t?, s? d?ng ngï¿½n ng?, gi?ng ?i?u m?i. Tr??c th?c t? ??y bi?n ??ng c?a l?ch s?, ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ c?a Lï¿½ L?u ra ??i nh? m?t b?c tranh sinh ??ng, kh?c ho? chï¿½n th?c nh?ng thï¿½ng ngï¿½y ??t n??c trong th?i k? ??i m?i. Tï¿½m hi?u tï¿½c ph?m k? trï¿½n, ta s? hi?u thï¿½m v? th? lo?i ti?u thuy?t c?a m?t th?i k? v?n h?c sï¿½i ??ng. ??ng th?i qua ?ï¿½ hi?u ???c nh?ng ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p c?a nhï¿½ v?n cho n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam giai ?o?n nï¿½y. * L?ch s? v?n ?? nghiï¿½n c?u Nghiï¿½n c?u v? Lï¿½ L?u vï¿½ cï¿½c sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a ï¿½ng nï¿½i chung, ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ nï¿½i riï¿½ng cï¿½ nhi?u bï¿½i vi?t ??ng trï¿½n cï¿½c bï¿½o, t?p chï¿½. Nh?ng bï¿½i vi?t ?y h?u h?t ???c tï¿½c gi? tuy?n ch?n ??a vï¿½o cu?n T?p v?n c?a mï¿½nh m?t cï¿½ch khï¿½ ??y ??. Tiï¿½u bi?u cï¿½ m?t s? bï¿½i vi?t nh?: ï¿½Lï¿½ l?uï¿½ ï¿½ trï¿½ch Chï¿½n dung vï¿½ ??i tho?i c?a Tr?n ??ng Khoa; ï¿½Ti?u thuy?t Lï¿½ L?u th?i k? ??i m?iï¿½ c?a tï¿½c gi? ?? H?i Ninh ï¿½ * Ph?m vi ï¿½ ?ï¿½?i t???ng nghiï¿½n c?u D?a vï¿½o ??c ?i?m th? lo?i ti?u thuy?t vï¿½ cï¿½c tï¿½c ph?m, trong ?? tï¿½i nï¿½y chï¿½ng tï¿½i c? g?ng ch? ra nh?ng chuy?n bi?n v? quan ni?m con ng??i, nh?ng tr?n tr? tï¿½m tï¿½iï¿½ trï¿½n trang vi?t c?a nhï¿½ v?n Lï¿½ L?u. ?? tï¿½i s? khï¿½ng ?i vï¿½o toï¿½n b? tï¿½c ph?m c?a ï¿½ng mï¿½ ch? t?p trung vï¿½o m?t tï¿½c ph?m th?i k? ??i m?i, ?ï¿½ lï¿½: Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i (1991) * Ph??ng phï¿½p nghiï¿½n c?u Trong cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nï¿½y, chï¿½ng tï¿½i s? d?ng m?t s? ph??ng phï¿½p ch? y?u sau: Ph??ng phï¿½p l?ch s? ï¿½ xï¿½ h?i; Ph??ng phï¿½p so sï¿½nh; Ph??ng phï¿½p phï¿½n tï¿½ch. * C?u trï¿½c ?? tï¿½i Ngoï¿½i ph?n m? ??u, k?t lu?n vï¿½ danh m?c tï¿½i li?u tham kh?o ?? tï¿½i ???c c?u trï¿½c g?m hai ch??ng chï¿½nh. Ch??ng m?t: Lï¿½ l?u vï¿½ ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i Ch??ng hai: Nh?ng nï¿½t ??c s?c c?a ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ N?I DUNG Ch??ng m?t NHï¿½ V?N Lï¿½ L?U Vï¿½ TI?U THUY?T VI?T NAM TH?I K? ??I M?I 1.1. Ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i 1.1.1. Kha?i niï¿½?m tiï¿½?u thuyï¿½?t Cï¿½ th? hi?u ti?u thuy?t lï¿½: ï¿½hï¿½nh th?c t? s? c? l?n ??c bi?t ph? bi?n trong th?i c?n ??i vï¿½ hi?n ??i. V?i nh?ng gi?i h?n r?ng rï¿½i trong hï¿½nh th?c tr?n thu?t, ti?u thuy?t cï¿½ th? ch?a ??ng l?ch s? c?a nhi?u cu?c ??i, nh?ng b?c tranh phong t?c, ??o ??c xï¿½ h?i, miï¿½u t? c? th? cï¿½c ?i?u ki?n sinh ho?t giai c?p, tï¿½i hi?n nhi?u tï¿½nh cï¿½ch ?a d?ngï¿½ [14, tr.387]. 1.1.2. Ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam tr??c th?i k? ??i m?i C?m h?ng ch? ??o c?a ti?u thuy?t th?i k? nï¿½y lï¿½ c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n cï¿½ch m?ng. G?t ra ngoï¿½i nh?ng v??ng b?n ??i th??ng, nh?ng n?i bu?n cï¿½ nhï¿½n, v??t lï¿½n trï¿½n nh?ng hy sinh m?t mï¿½t, v?n xuï¿½i giai ?o?n nï¿½y ph?n ï¿½nh khï¿½ th? hï¿½o hï¿½ng, nh?ng chi?n cï¿½ng hi?n hï¿½ch c?a dï¿½n t?c, h??ng con ng??i v? phï¿½a ï¿½nh sï¿½ng vï¿½ t??ng lai. 1.1.3. Ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam th?i k? ??i m?i V?n h?c ?ï¿½ th?c s? ???c c?i trï¿½i, cho nï¿½n ch? ??, ?? tï¿½i ???c m? r?ng, khï¿½ng b? gï¿½ ï¿½p, khï¿½ng b? gi?i h?n. V?n h?c ?ï¿½ tï¿½m v? v?i ï¿½con ng??i ??i th??ngï¿½, ï¿½con ng??i cï¿½ nhï¿½nï¿½ nh?ng v?n ï¿½m?iï¿½, v?n khï¿½ng d?m chï¿½n lï¿½n l?i c? mï¿½ ??y sï¿½ng t?o trong s? v?n ??ng khï¿½ng ng?ng c?a cu?c s?ng m?i. V?n h?c ???c tr? l?i ï¿½thiï¿½n ch?cï¿½ c?a mï¿½nh trong vi?c ph?n ï¿½nh ??i s?ng vï¿½ ?i?u ?y t?o nï¿½n gi?ng ?i?u ?a thanh trong m?i tï¿½c ph?m, trong t?ng tï¿½c gi?. 1.2. S? nghi?p sï¿½ng tï¿½c v?n h?c c?a Lï¿½ L?u 1.2.1. Vï¿½i nï¿½t v? tï¿½c gi? Nhï¿½ v?n Lï¿½ L?u sinh ngï¿½y 12/12/1942 t?i m?t lï¿½ng ngoï¿½i ?ï¿½ sï¿½ng H?ng, thï¿½n M?n Hoï¿½, xï¿½ Tï¿½n Chï¿½u, huy?n Khoï¿½i Chï¿½u  H?ng Yï¿½n. ï¿½ng hi?n nay ?ang ??m nhi?m ch?c Giï¿½m ??c c?a Trung tï¿½m V?n hï¿½a Doanh nhï¿½n t?i Hï¿½ N?i. 1.2.2. S? nghi?p sï¿½ng tï¿½c Tr??c khi tr? thï¿½nh nhï¿½ ti?u thuy?t cï¿½ tï¿½n tu?i, Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ t?ng lï¿½ m?t cï¿½y bï¿½t truy?n ng?n. Lï¿½ m?t nhï¿½ v?n  chi?n s?, tr?c ti?p ??ng trong hï¿½ng ng? c?a nh?ng anh lï¿½nh c? H?, n?m tr?i bao nhiï¿½u ??ng cay c?a cu?c chi?n tranh, cho nï¿½n sï¿½ng tï¿½c c?a ï¿½ng th??ng in ??m d?u ?n chi?n tranh vï¿½ ch?t ch?a bao suy t? tr?n tr? v? tï¿½nh ng??i, tï¿½nh ??i. Tï¿½c ph?m ti?u bi?u c?a ï¿½ng: Ng??i c?m sï¿½ng (1970)  gi?i nhï¿½ bï¿½o V?n ngh?; M? r?ng (1976); Th?i xa v?ng (1986)  gi?i A H?i nhï¿½ v?n Vi?t Nam; Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i (1991); Sï¿½ng ? ?ï¿½y sï¿½ng (1994); Truy?n ng?n Lï¿½ L?u (2003). Ch??ng hai NH?NG Nï¿½T ??C S?C C?A TI?U THUY?T ï¿½CHUY?N Lï¿½NG CU?Iï¿½ 2.1. Tï¿½m t?t tï¿½c ph?m ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ Cï¿½u chuy?n xoay quanh cu?c ??i ??y ?au kh? c?a bï¿½ ??t. Chuy?n b?t ??u vï¿½ k?t thï¿½c b?ng cï¿½i ch?t c?a bï¿½. T? ??y, tï¿½c gi? cho cï¿½c nhï¿½n v?t tï¿½i hi?n l?i dï¿½ng quï¿½ kh? thï¿½ng qua nh?ng m?i tï¿½nh. 2.2. C?m h?ng bi k?ch thay th? cho ch?t s? thi vï¿½ c?m h?ng ng?i ca 2.2.1. Khï¿½i ni?m c?m h?ng  C?m h?ng bi k?ch Tï¿½c ph?m ngh? thu?t chï¿½nh lï¿½ k?t qu? c?a c?m h?ng. ?i?u nï¿½y ???c Nguy?n V?n H?nh, Hu?nh Nh? Ph??ng tri?n khai m?t cï¿½ch c? th? vï¿½ ?i ??n k?t lu?n: ï¿½C?m h?ng lï¿½ s? thi?t tha vï¿½ nhi?t tï¿½nh n?ng chï¿½y g?i nï¿½n b?i m?t t? t??ng nï¿½o ?ï¿½ [7, tr.208 209]. Cu?c s?ng con ng??i lï¿½ th? gi?i muï¿½n mï¿½u, chï¿½nh vï¿½ th?, c?m h?ng c?ng mang nhi?u d?ng th?c khï¿½c nhau. Cï¿½ c?m h?ng bi k?ch, c?m h?ng hï¿½i k?ch, c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n, c?m h?ng chï¿½m bi?m... 2.2.2. C?m h?ng bi k?ch trong v?n h?c Vi?t Nam tr??c vï¿½ sau th?i k? ??i m?i Nï¿½i ??n c?m h?ng bi k?ch trong v?n h?c Vi?t Nam ï¿½tr??c th?i k? ??i m?iï¿½ lï¿½ nï¿½i ??n m?t ch?ng ???ng dï¿½i mï¿½ tï¿½c ph?m ??u tiï¿½n chï¿½nh lï¿½ truy?n thuy?t M? Chï¿½u  Tr?ng Th?y... C?m h?ng bi k?ch ???c ti?p n?i trong n?n v?n h?c vi?t cho ??n tr??c n?m 1945, ? giai ?o?n nï¿½y bi k?ch chï¿½nh lï¿½ m?i xung ??t gi?a khï¿½t v?ng chï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng riï¿½ng t? c?a con ng??i vï¿½ kh? n?ng khï¿½ng th? th?c hi?n ???c nh?ng khï¿½t v?ng ?ï¿½ trong cu?c s?ng. V?n h?c giai ?o?n t? 1945 ??n tr??c th?i k? ??i m?i v?i nhi?m v? ??ng viï¿½n c? v? nï¿½n ???c vi?t hoï¿½n toï¿½n b?i ch?t s? thi vï¿½ c?m h?ng lï¿½ng m?n. C?m h?ng bi k?ch h?u nh? khï¿½ng xu?t hi?n, khï¿½ng ???c kh?i ngu?n. Sau n?m 1986, v?n h?c ? giai ?o?n nï¿½y khï¿½ng ch? cï¿½ bi k?ch c?a s? m?t mï¿½t mï¿½ cï¿½c nhï¿½ v?n th?i k? ??i m?i cï¿½n kh?c ho? t?n bi k?ch l?c lï¿½ng c?a ng??i lï¿½nh sau cu?c chi?n. Khï¿½ng ch? d?ng l?i m?i quan h? gi?a con ng??i v?i hoï¿½n c?nh, v?n h?c th?i k? ??i m?i cï¿½n khï¿½m phï¿½ bi k?ch trong m?i quan h? gi?a con ng??i v?i con ng??i ? nh?ng cung b?c khï¿½c nhau. 2.2.3. C?m h?ng bi k?ch trong ti?u thuy?t ï¿½Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?iï¿½ Nhï¿½ v?n Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ kh?c ho? ??m nï¿½t nh?ng bi k?ch xu?t phï¿½t t? hoï¿½n c?nh xï¿½ h?i. Bï¿½ ??t  nhï¿½n v?t chï¿½nh c?a ti?u thuy?t Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i r?i vï¿½o th?m k?ch hoï¿½n toï¿½n do hoï¿½n c?nh mang l?i. B?ng c?m h?ng bi k?ch, Lï¿½ L?u ?ï¿½ tinh t? khï¿½m phï¿½ t?n cï¿½ng chi?u sï¿½u c?a n?i ?au mï¿½ ng??i ph? n? ?ï¿½ng th??ng ?y ph?i tr?i qua. T?ng dï¿½ng ch? nh? th?m ??m n??c m?t c?a ng??i c?m bï¿½t. Nhï¿½ v?n ?ï¿½ ??y bi k?ch lï¿½n ??n ??nh ?i?m b?ng cï¿½i ch?t ??y b?t ng? vï¿½ ï¿½khï¿½ng bï¿½nh th??ngï¿½ chï¿½t nï¿½o c?a ng??i m? ?ï¿½ng th??ng. 2.3. M?t cï¿½ch nhï¿½n m?i v? hi?n th?c nï¿½ng thï¿½n Vi?t Nam ? tï¿½c ph?m Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i, nh?ng s?c mï¿½u khï¿½c nhau c?a b?c tranh lï¿½ng quï¿½ Vi?t Nam ???c nhï¿½ v?n ph?n ï¿½nh khï¿½ s?c nï¿½t. L?n theo cu?c ??i c?a m?i nhï¿½n v?t, ï¿½s?c mï¿½u nï¿½ng thï¿½nï¿½ c? hi?n hi?n m?t cï¿½ch t? nhiï¿½n, ?m ?p s?c s?ng. H?n th? n?a, nh?ng t?p t?c, l? thï¿½i, phong v?, t?p quï¿½n c?a lï¿½ng quï¿½ Vi?t Nam ???c miï¿½u t? m?t cï¿½ch chï¿½n th?c v?i m?t ch?t gi?ng ??m th?m, yï¿½u th??ng h?n h?u. 2.4. S? ??i m?i trong k?t c?u tï¿½c ph?m 2.4.1. Tï¿½nh hu?ng truy?n Khi ??c Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i c?a Lï¿½ L?u, chï¿½ng ta th?y n?m n?p lo s?, h?i h?p cho s? ph?n c?a nhï¿½n v?t. Vï¿½ d??ng nh? ?ï¿½ m? nh?ng trang sï¿½ch ??u tiï¿½n thï¿½ khï¿½ng ai cï¿½ th? g?p sï¿½ch l?i mï¿½ ph?i ti?p t?c ??c, ti?p t?c theo dï¿½i di?n bi?n cï¿½u chuy?n. Cï¿½ ???c ?i?u nï¿½y lï¿½ do tï¿½c gi? ?ï¿½ khï¿½o lï¿½o xï¿½y d?ng nh?ng tï¿½nh hu?ng truy?n b?t ng?, gay c?n. 2.4.2. K?t thï¿½c truy?n Trong tï¿½c ph?m, ta nh?n th?y nhï¿½ v?n ?ï¿½ gï¿½y ???c s? b?t ng? cho ng??i ??c trong cï¿½ch k?t thï¿½c tï¿½c ph?m. V?i ki?u k?t nï¿½y th?c s? ?ï¿½ cho ng??i ??c c?m giï¿½c yï¿½n lï¿½ng vï¿½ nhï¿½n v?t mï¿½ mï¿½nh yï¿½u thï¿½ch cu?i cï¿½ng c?ng v? ???c ï¿½b?n ??ï¿½. 2.5. S?? ?a da?ng trong gi?ng ?i?u tr?n thu?t 2.5.1. Gi?ng ?i?u hï¿½i h??c, trï¿½o ti?u Cï¿½ th? nï¿½i gi?ng ?i?u hï¿½i h??c lï¿½ m?t trong nh?ng ch?t gi?ng ???c Lï¿½ L?u th? hi?n ??m nï¿½t trong tï¿½c ph?m c?a mï¿½nh. Chï¿½nh ch?t gi?ng ?ï¿½ ?ï¿½ giï¿½p nhï¿½ v?n ??a nh?ng y?u t? c?a v?n h?c trï¿½o ti?u dï¿½n gian vï¿½o tï¿½c ph?m. Chï¿½nh ch?t gi?ng hï¿½i h??c t?u tï¿½o giï¿½p cho tï¿½c ph?m c?a ï¿½ng g?n g?i h?n v?i b?n ??c. ? ?ï¿½, khï¿½ng cï¿½n ch? cho gi?ng ?i?u s? thi, mï¿½ ngï¿½n ng? su?ng sï¿½ ??i th??ng ???c nhï¿½ v?n s? d?ng m?t cï¿½ch tï¿½i tï¿½nh, ??m nï¿½t, nhi?u h?n trong cï¿½c tï¿½c ph?m. 2.5.2. Gi?ng tri?t lï¿½, ng?m ngï¿½i xï¿½t th??ng Ngoï¿½i gi?ng hï¿½i h??c hï¿½m h?nh t?o nï¿½n nh?ng trang vi?t ï¿½s?c ng?tï¿½, ï¿½lï¿½m l?nhï¿½, Lï¿½ L?u cï¿½n tr?n thu?t v?i ch?t gi?ng tri?t lï¿½, ng?m ngï¿½i xï¿½t th??ng. Ch?t gi?ng nï¿½y th??ng lï¿½ tr?n thu?t nh?ng suy ngh? c?a nhï¿½n v?t vï¿½ chï¿½nh gi?ng ?i?u mang tï¿½nh suy t? tri?t lï¿½ ?ï¿½ gï¿½p ph?n lï¿½m cho s?c khï¿½i quï¿½t c?a tï¿½c ph?m sï¿½u s?c h?n. K?T LU?N Cï¿½ th? nh?n th?y chï¿½nh nh?ng thay ??i quan ni?m v? cï¿½ch nhï¿½n hi?n th?c, con ng??i c?ng nh? nh?ng n? l?c trong sï¿½ng t?o ngh? thu?t khi?n tï¿½c ph?m c?a Lï¿½ L?u th?i k? ??i m?i ?ï¿½ gï¿½p ph?n tï¿½ch c?c trong vi?c ??i m?i n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam ???ng ??i. V? m?t n?i dung, ta th?y r?ng, v?i cï¿½i nhï¿½n s?c bï¿½n, Lï¿½ L?u th?c s? ?ï¿½ cï¿½ nh?ng ?ï¿½ng gï¿½p to l?n cho n?n ti?u thuy?t Vi?t Nam ???ng ??i. Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i ?ï¿½ ??i tho?i ???c v?i cu?c s?ng. H?n th? n?a, nh?ng nhï¿½n v?t nh? bï¿½ ??t, L?u Minh Hi?uï¿½ v?a mang nh?ng nï¿½t riï¿½ng l?i v?a mang tï¿½nh khï¿½i quï¿½t sï¿½u s?c ??c ?i?m c?a m?t l?p ng??i thu?c ï¿½th?i xa v?ngï¿½. V? m?t ngh? thu?t, chï¿½ng ta th?y rï¿½, d??ng nh? chuy?n ??ng ??ng sau cï¿½c s? ki?n, s? vi?c lï¿½ dï¿½ng t? t??ng, lï¿½ nh?ng chiï¿½m nghi?m mï¿½ ï¿½ng mu?n g?i g?m t?i b?n ??c. ??c bi?t, nh?ng t? t??ng ?y ???c ng??i c?m bï¿½t khï¿½o lï¿½o ??a vï¿½o gi?a cï¿½c dï¿½ng, cï¿½c ch??ng, gi?a cï¿½c s? ki?n, chi ti?t ng?n ng?n c?a ??i s?ng. Tï¿½I LI?U THAM KH?O 1. L?i Nguyï¿½n ï¿½n (2004), 150 thu?t ng? v?n h?c, Nxb ??i h?c Qu?c gia Hï¿½ N?i. 2. Phan C?? ?? (2005), V?n h?c Vi?t Nam th? k? XX, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, H. 3. Nguy?n V?n H?nh  Hu?nh Nh? Ph??ng (1999), Lï¿½ lu?n v?n h?c  v?n ?? vï¿½ suy ngh?, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, H. 4. Tr?n ??ng Khoa (1994), Chï¿½n dung vï¿½ ??i tho?i, Nxb Thanh Niï¿½n. 5. Nguy?n V?n Long, Nguy?n ??ng M?nh (??ng ch? biï¿½n) (2002), L?ch s? v?n h?c Vi?t Nam (T?p 3), Nxb ??i h?c S? ph?m Hï¿½ N?i. 6. Ph??ng L?u, Tr?n ?ï¿½nh S?, Lï¿½ Ng?c Trï¿½ (1987), Lï¿½ lu?n v?n h?c, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, H. 7. Lï¿½ L?u (2003), T?p v?n, Nxb V?n hoï¿½ thï¿½ng tin, H. 8. Lï¿½ L?u (2006), Chuy?n lï¿½ng Cu?i, Nxb V?n h?c, H. 9. ?? H?i Ninh (2006), ï¿½Ti?u thuy?t Lï¿½ L?u th?i k? ??i m?iï¿½, T?p chï¿½ Nghiï¿½n c?u V?n h?c, s? 7 2006. 10. Nguy?n Kh?c Sï¿½nh (2008), ï¿½?i tï¿½m phong cï¿½ch chung c?a V?n h?cï¿½, T?p chï¿½ nghiï¿½n c?u V?n h?c, s? 22008.
