**T? Cï¿½C D? B?N C?A M?T Bï¿½I CA DAO **

**NGH? V? M?T ??C Tï¿½NH ??P C?A NGU?I PH? N? VI?T NAM**

Lï¿½ s?n ph?m tinh th?n ??c bi?t, hï¿½nh thï¿½nh trong ??i s?ng lao ??ng, chi?n ??u vï¿½ trong sinh ho?t hï¿½ng ngï¿½y c?a ng??i lao ??ng, v?n h?c dï¿½n gian nï¿½i chung vï¿½ ca dao nï¿½i riï¿½ng cï¿½ m?t s? ??c tï¿½nh c? b?n mang nï¿½t ??c thï¿½ r?t ?ï¿½ng chï¿½ ï¿½. Tï¿½nh t?p th?, tï¿½nh vï¿½ danh, tï¿½nh truy?n mi?ng ?ï¿½ gï¿½p ph?n t?o ra cï¿½c d? b?n khï¿½c nhau c?a cï¿½ng m?t tï¿½c ph?m vï¿½ ? nhi?u tr??ng h?p ?ï¿½ t?o ra nï¿½t ??c ?ï¿½o c?a tï¿½c ph?m ?ï¿½. Vi?c tï¿½m hi?u cï¿½c d? b?n khï¿½c nhau c?a cï¿½ng m?t tï¿½c ph?m ca dao nhi?u khi gï¿½p ph?n lï¿½m sï¿½ng t? nh?ng khï¿½a c?nh phong phï¿½ v? n?i dung t? t??ng c?a nï¿½ t? ?ï¿½ hi?u thï¿½m nh?ng ph?m ch?t hay ??c tï¿½nh c?a ng??i lao ??ng Vi?t Nam. Xu?t phï¿½t t? lu?n ?i?m c? b?n ?ï¿½, tï¿½c gi? bï¿½i vi?t nï¿½y mu?n tï¿½m hi?u cï¿½c d? b?n c?a m?t bï¿½i ca dao ?? hi?u thï¿½m m?t ??c tï¿½nh ??p c?a ng??i ph? n? Vi?t Nam.

B?n I: Cï¿½u 1 Nï¿½o khi anh b?ng anh beo,

" 2 Tay c?t chï¿½n thu?c tay ?ï¿½o mï¿½i chanh.

" 3 Bï¿½y gi? anh kh?i anh lï¿½nh,

" 4 Anh mï¿½ nhan s?c, anh tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½i.( b?n V.N. P- tr.380)

B?n II: Cï¿½u 1 Nh? khi anh b?ng anh beo

" 2 Tay b?ng chï¿½n thu?c tay ?ï¿½o mï¿½i chanh

" 3 Bï¿½y gi? anh ?? anh lï¿½nh

" 4 Anh mï¿½ duyï¿½n m?i anh tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½i.

B?n III: Cï¿½u 1 Nh? khi anh b?ng anh beo

" 2 Tay b?ng chï¿½n thu?c tay ?ï¿½o mï¿½i chanh

" 3 Bï¿½y gi? anh ?? anh lï¿½nh

" 4 Anh mï¿½ duyï¿½n m?i anh tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½i

" 5 ??t x?u n?n ch?ng nï¿½n n?i

" 6 Anh ?i l?y v? ?? tï¿½i l?y ch?ng.

B?n IV: Cï¿½u 1 Nh? khi anh b?ng anh beo

" 2 Tay b?ng chï¿½n thu?c tay ?ï¿½o mï¿½i chanh

" 3 Bï¿½y gi? anh?? anh lï¿½nh

" 4 Anh mï¿½ duyï¿½n m?i anh tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½i

" 5 ??t x?u n?n ch?ng nï¿½n n?i

" 6 Chï¿½ng ?i l?y v? ?? thi?p tï¿½i l?y ch?ng

" 7 Chï¿½ng v? l?y v? cï¿½ch sï¿½ng

" 8 Cï¿½n thi?p tï¿½i l? l?ng l?y con ï¿½ng lï¿½i ?ï¿½

" 9 Phï¿½ng khi chï¿½ng cï¿½ sang ?ï¿½

" 10 Sï¿½ng sï¿½u n??c c? thi?p tï¿½i lo cho chï¿½ng

V? v?n b?n, cï¿½u ch?, so sï¿½nh b?n b?n I, II, III, IV ta th?y cï¿½ m?t s? ch? dï¿½ng khï¿½c nhau. C? th?:

Cï¿½u B?n I B?n II, III, IV

1 Nï¿½o khi Nh? khi

2 Tay c?t Tay b?ng

3 Anh kh?i Anh ??

4 Anh mï¿½ nhan s?c Anh mï¿½ duyï¿½n m?i

Cï¿½ th? th?y, m?c dï¿½ cï¿½ m?t s? khï¿½c bi?t nh? v? ch? dï¿½ng nh?ng c? b?n bï¿½i ca dao trï¿½n ??u cï¿½ cï¿½ng m?t ph?n chung ???c xem lï¿½ g?c g?m b?n cï¿½u ??u: 1, 2, 3, 4. Ph?n nï¿½y toï¿½t lï¿½n ï¿½ c? b?n lï¿½ s? ph? b?c, vï¿½ ?n c?a ng??i ch?ng vï¿½ l?i than phi?n, oï¿½n trï¿½ch c?a ng??i v?. Dï¿½ lï¿½ ï¿½Nï¿½o khiï¿½ hay lï¿½ ï¿½Nh? khiï¿½ thï¿½ nhï¿½n v?t tr? tï¿½nh lï¿½ ng??i ph? n? b? ch?ng ph? b?c nï¿½y ??u ?ang ??ng ? th?i ?i?m hi?n t?i ?? t? bï¿½y tï¿½nh c?m c?a mï¿½nh. Ch? lï¿½ ng??i v? r?t m?c th??ng yï¿½u ch?ng, t?n t?y v?i ch?ng. Khi ch?ng ?au ?m ï¿½b?ng beoï¿½, ch? khï¿½ng qu?n ng?i v?t v? gian nan, t?t b?t lo thu?c thang cho ch?ng. M?t tay thï¿½ ï¿½b?ng chï¿½n thu?cï¿½ cï¿½n m?t tay l?i ï¿½?ï¿½o mï¿½i chanhï¿½. Bi?t bao nhiï¿½u tï¿½nh th??ng yï¿½u trï¿½u m?n ??ng ? ch? ï¿½?ï¿½oï¿½ v?n gi?n ??n kia. Cï¿½i mï¿½i chanh bï¿½ t?o, nh? nhoi nh? v?y mï¿½ ph?i g?ng s?c m?i ki?m ???c v? lï¿½m thu?c cho ch?ng. Bao nhiï¿½u cï¿½ng s?c, bao nhiï¿½u tï¿½nh th??ng d?n l?i ? m?t ch? ï¿½?ï¿½oï¿½. Ng??i ta nh? ngay ??n m?t bï¿½i ca dao khï¿½c nï¿½i v? t?m tï¿½nh c?a ng??i ph? n? Vi?t Nam:

Tai em nghe anh ?au ??u ch?a khï¿½

Em b?ng ??ng ch? sï¿½ ?i b? n?m lï¿½ n? v? xï¿½ng

? lï¿½m sao ?ï¿½y cho tr?n ngh?a v? ch?ng

?? m? hï¿½i ra em ch?m ng?n giï¿½ l?ng em che.( b?n V.N. P- tr.386)

Qu? th?t, tï¿½nh th??ng yï¿½u mï¿½ ng??i ph? n? Vi?t Nam dï¿½nh cho ch?ng chï¿½n thï¿½nh, m?c m?c mï¿½ quï¿½ giï¿½ vï¿½ xï¿½c ??ng bi?t bao. ?y v?y mï¿½ ng??i ch?ng th?t vï¿½ ?n, ?ï¿½ ph? t?m lï¿½ng c?a ch?. Gi? ?ï¿½y anh ?ï¿½ kh?i b?nh, ?ï¿½ kh?e, ?ï¿½ lï¿½nh thï¿½ anh l?i ham mï¿½ duyï¿½n m?i, ham mï¿½ nhan s?c m?i mï¿½ ph? b?c ng??i v? ?ï¿½ dï¿½nh cho anh t?t c? tï¿½nh yï¿½u, tu?i thanh xuï¿½n vï¿½ s? ch?m sï¿½c chï¿½n tï¿½nh. D??i ch? ?? phong ki?n tr?ng nam khinh n?, ï¿½trai n?m thï¿½ b?y thi?p gï¿½i chï¿½nh chuyï¿½n ch? cï¿½ m?t ch?ngï¿½, ng??i v? nï¿½y ?ï¿½nh ch? buï¿½ng ra ti?ng th? dï¿½i v?i l?i oï¿½n trï¿½ch th?m l?ng: ï¿½Anh mï¿½ nhan s?c (duyï¿½n m?i) anh tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½iï¿½. ?ï¿½ lï¿½ nï¿½t chung c?a b?n I, II vï¿½ b?n cï¿½u ??u c?a b?n III. S? ti?p n?i cï¿½u 5 vï¿½ 6 ? b?n th? ba cho ta th?y m?t nï¿½t khï¿½c: ph?n ?ng c?a ng??i ph? n? tr??c tï¿½nh c?nh b? ph? b?c. ? ?ï¿½y ng??i ph? n? khï¿½ng cam ch?u, khï¿½ng cam ph?n b? bï¿½ng b? tï¿½nh ph? mï¿½ cï¿½ thï¿½i ?? d?t khoï¿½t, rï¿½ rï¿½ng: N?u anh vï¿½ tï¿½i duyï¿½n ch?ng ??p, ch?ng th? m?n n?ng ???c n?a, ï¿½??t x?u n?n ch?ng nï¿½n n?iï¿½ thï¿½ anh ?i ???ng anh tï¿½i ???ng tï¿½i v?y: ï¿½Anh ?i l?y v? ?? tï¿½i l?y ch?ngï¿½. Gi? ?ï¿½y khï¿½ng ch? lï¿½ oï¿½n trï¿½ch, than thï¿½n trï¿½ch ph?n mï¿½ lï¿½ s? ph?n ?ng theo h??ng gi?i phï¿½ng ??i mï¿½nh. Ng??i ph? n? Vi?t Nam khï¿½ng ch? cam ph?n mï¿½ dï¿½m ngh?, dï¿½m nï¿½i ra m?t cï¿½ch kiï¿½n quy?t vï¿½ cao h?n lï¿½ dï¿½m tï¿½m ra con ???ng ?i phï¿½ h?p cho c? ?ï¿½i bï¿½n. So v?i b?n I vï¿½ II, b?n III rï¿½ rï¿½ng ?ï¿½ gï¿½p thï¿½m m?t nï¿½t ??c tï¿½nh ?ï¿½ng quï¿½ c?a ng??i ph? n? Vi?t Nam. ?ï¿½ lï¿½ s? ch? ??ng trong cu?c s?ng, khï¿½ng ch?u ??u hï¿½ng s? ph?n ?en b?c. Tuy nhiï¿½n, theo chï¿½ng tï¿½i, b?n IV m?i lï¿½ b?n h?t s?c ??c ?ï¿½o. C?ng lï¿½ cï¿½ch gi?i quy?t d?t khoï¿½t, m?i ng??i m?t ng? nh?ng cï¿½ch nï¿½i nh? nhï¿½ng h?n, thï¿½n tï¿½nh h?n r?t nhi?u: ï¿½Chï¿½ng ?i l?y v? ?? thi?p tï¿½i l?y ch?ngï¿½. Ch? thay ch? ï¿½anhï¿½ b?ng ch? ï¿½chï¿½ngï¿½ vï¿½ thï¿½m vï¿½o ch? ï¿½thi?pï¿½ tr??c ch? ï¿½tï¿½iï¿½, tï¿½c gi? dï¿½n gian ?ï¿½ di?n t? tinh t? n?i lï¿½ng sï¿½u kï¿½n c?a ng??i v? b? ph? b?c. Lï¿½ng ph?n n? ?ï¿½ d?u ?i nhi?u, l?i nï¿½i c?ng m?m m?ng h?n. ? ng??i ph? n? nï¿½y v?n cï¿½n v??ng v?n m?t chï¿½t t? lï¿½ng: ï¿½D?u lï¿½a ngï¿½ ï¿½ cï¿½n v??ng t? lï¿½ngï¿½( ï¿½Truy?n Ki?uï¿½ - Nguy?n Du). Chï¿½ng vï¿½ thi?p v?n lï¿½ cï¿½ch x?ng hï¿½ thï¿½n tï¿½nh c?a nh?ng ?ï¿½i l?a h?nh phï¿½c:

+ ï¿½Thi?p xa chï¿½ng hï¿½i dï¿½u quï¿½n gi?

Chï¿½ng xa thi?p b?t c? quï¿½n li?mï¿½ (b?n V.N.P - tr.281)

+ ï¿½Thi?p xa chï¿½ng nh? r?ng n? xa mï¿½y

Nh? con chï¿½o b?o xa cï¿½y m?ng vï¿½iï¿½ (b?n V.N.P - tr.258)

+ ï¿½Chï¿½ng ?i thi?p v?n trï¿½ng theo

Trï¿½ng n??c n??c ch?y trï¿½ng bï¿½o bï¿½o trï¿½i

Chï¿½ng ?i thi?p ??ng trï¿½ng ch?ng

Trï¿½ng sï¿½ng lai lï¿½ng trï¿½ng r?ng r?ng xanhï¿½ (b?n V.N.P tr. 295)

Gi? ?ï¿½y h?nh phï¿½c ?ï¿½ tan v?. Anh ?ï¿½ mï¿½ duyï¿½n m?i mï¿½ tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½i nh?ng dï¿½ v?y thi?p tï¿½i ?ï¿½y v?n cï¿½n th??ng yï¿½u nhi?u l?m. Ng??i ph? n? nï¿½y t? v? ra c?nh t??ng trong t??ng lai: Chï¿½ng thï¿½ l?y m?t ng??i v? ? cï¿½ch sï¿½ng cï¿½n thi?p tï¿½i thï¿½ ï¿½l? l?ng l?y con ï¿½ng lï¿½i ?ï¿½. Vï¿½ sao vï¿½ ?? lï¿½m gï¿½ v?y? ?? ï¿½phï¿½ng khi chï¿½ng cï¿½ sang ?ï¿½, sï¿½ng sï¿½u n??c c? thi?p tï¿½i lo cho chï¿½ngï¿½. Hï¿½a ra lï¿½ nh? v?y. Hï¿½a ra s? th?t lï¿½ ng??i v? b? ph? b?c nï¿½y v?n cï¿½n th??ng yï¿½u ng??i ch?ng nhi?u l?m. Bi?t bao nhiï¿½u yï¿½u th??ng, quï¿½ m?n, bi?t m?y hi sinh vï¿½ nhï¿½n h?u, khoan dung ? cï¿½i t? ï¿½l? l?ngï¿½ sï¿½u s?c mï¿½ tinh t?. Thi?p tï¿½i nï¿½o cï¿½ yï¿½u con trai ï¿½ng lï¿½i ?ï¿½ ?ï¿½u. Thi?p tï¿½i ch? yï¿½u cï¿½ m?t mï¿½nh chï¿½ng thï¿½i. Cho dï¿½ chï¿½ng khï¿½ng cï¿½n th??ng yï¿½u thi?p n?a; cho dï¿½ chï¿½ng ?ï¿½ ph? b?c tï¿½nh thi?p thï¿½ b?t c? lï¿½c nï¿½o trong cu?c ??i nï¿½y thi?p tï¿½i c?ng ch? lo cho m?t mï¿½nh chï¿½ng mï¿½ thï¿½i. Hï¿½a ra s? s?p ??t ï¿½chï¿½ng v? l?y v? cï¿½ch sï¿½ngï¿½ ï¿½cï¿½n thi?p tï¿½i l? l?ng l?y con ï¿½ng lï¿½i ?ï¿½ lï¿½ cï¿½ch ?? bï¿½y t? t?m lï¿½ng c?a ng??i v? ?ï¿½ng quï¿½ nï¿½y. ?ï¿½ng ra thï¿½ thi?p tï¿½i s? ï¿½m tr?n m?i tï¿½nh v?i chï¿½ng mï¿½ ? v?y ??n su?t ??i nh?ng vï¿½ luï¿½n lo l?ng, quan tï¿½m, th??ng yï¿½u chï¿½ng nï¿½n thi?p tï¿½i ph?i l? l?ng l?y con ï¿½ng lï¿½i ?ï¿½ ?? ï¿½phï¿½ng khi chï¿½ng cï¿½ sang ?ï¿½ thï¿½ nh?ng quï¿½ng "sï¿½ng sï¿½u n??c c?ï¿½ ?ï¿½ cï¿½ ï¿½thi?p tï¿½i lo cho chï¿½ngï¿½. M?t tï¿½nh yï¿½u th?t cao c? bi?t bao! Tï¿½nh yï¿½u ?ï¿½ ??ng ngh?a v?i s? hi sinh! Vï¿½ chï¿½ng, thi?p cï¿½ th? quï¿½n ?i cu?c ??i riï¿½ng, h?nh phï¿½c riï¿½ng; cï¿½ th? lï¿½m t?t c? ?? chï¿½ng luï¿½n h?nh phï¿½c.

Trong ï¿½T?c ng? ca dao dï¿½n ca Vi?t Namï¿½ c?a V? Ng?c Phan cï¿½n cï¿½ m?t b?n khï¿½c cï¿½ th? so sï¿½nh v?i cï¿½c b?n ?ï¿½ nï¿½u trï¿½n:

Cï¿½u 1 X?a kia ? v?i m? cha

" 2 M? cha yï¿½u d?u nh? hoa trï¿½n cï¿½nh

" 3 T? ngï¿½y tï¿½i ? v?i anh

" 4 Anh ?ï¿½nh anh ch?i anh tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½i

" 5 ??t x?u n?n ch? nï¿½n n?i

" 6 Anh ?i l?y v? cho tï¿½i l?y ch?ng. (tr. 380)

Nï¿½t g?p g? v? n?i dung ? b?n nï¿½y v?i cï¿½c b?n kia lï¿½ cï¿½ng nï¿½i v? s? ph? b?c c?a ng??i ch?ng vï¿½ c?ng b?c l? thï¿½i ?? d?t khoï¿½t c?a ng??i v? nh?ng ? b?n nï¿½y cï¿½ m?t vï¿½i s?c thï¿½i khï¿½c. Ng??i ch?ng ? ?ï¿½y khï¿½ng b? oï¿½n trï¿½ch v? s? vï¿½ ?n mï¿½ b? oï¿½n trï¿½ch b?i s? tï¿½n b?o vï¿½ ph? b?c. ï¿½n l?i quï¿½ng ??i h?nh phï¿½c, sung s??ng, ???c th??ng yï¿½u chi?u chu?ng khi cï¿½n ? v?i m? cha, ng??i ph? n? nï¿½y k? t?i ng??i ch?ng: ï¿½Anh ?ï¿½nh anh ch?i anh tï¿½nh ph? tï¿½iï¿½ ?? b?c l? rï¿½ thï¿½i ?? d?t khoï¿½t c?a mï¿½nh ï¿½Anh ?i l?y v? cho tï¿½i l?y ch?ngï¿½.

Nh? v?y, cï¿½ th? th?y, ?? th? hi?n m?t n?i dung nï¿½o ?ï¿½, tï¿½c gi? dï¿½n gian ?ï¿½ sï¿½ng t?o ra nhi?u tï¿½c ph?m khï¿½c nhau d?a vï¿½o m?t b?n g?c ban ??u. T? b?n g?c nï¿½y, cï¿½ th? cï¿½ nh?ng d? b?n khï¿½c ?? b? sung (thï¿½m, b?t, thay ??i) m?t nï¿½t n?i dung khï¿½c. T? nh?ng d? b?n khï¿½c nhau c?a bï¿½i ca dao ???c phï¿½n tï¿½ch ? trï¿½n, ta cï¿½ th? hi?u thï¿½m m?t ??c tï¿½nh t?t ??p c?a ng??i ph? n? lao ??ng Vi?t Nam. Tï¿½nh yï¿½u vï¿½ s? hi sinh, lï¿½ng v? tha cao c? c?a h? gï¿½p ph?n tï¿½ ?i?m thï¿½m cho v? ??p truy?n th?ng c?a dï¿½n t?c ta. ?ï¿½ lï¿½ nh?ng giï¿½ tr? v?n hï¿½a tinh th?n quï¿½ bï¿½u mï¿½ chï¿½ng ta c?n gi? gï¿½n, nï¿½ng niu, trï¿½n tr?ng vï¿½ truy?n l?i cho cï¿½c th? h? mai sau.

Tï¿½i li?u tham kh?o:

1. Nguy?n Xuï¿½n Kï¿½nh (1992), Thi phï¿½p ca dao, Nxb KHXH, HN.

2. V? Ng?c Phan (1998), T?c ng? ca dao dï¿½n ca Vi?t Nam, Nxb KHXH, HN.

* Bï¿½i bï¿½o cï¿½o vï¿½ ??ng trong K? y?u H?i th?o VHDG do Khoa Ng? V?n

Tr??ng ?HSP ï¿½ ?H ?ï¿½ N?ng t? ch?c thï¿½ng 5/2002.

* Bï¿½i ???c tuy?n ch?n ??ng trong Tuy?n t?p cï¿½c cï¿½ng trï¿½nh nghiï¿½n c?u

khoa h?c Khoa Ng? v?n - Tr??ng ?HSP ï¿½ ?H ?ï¿½ N?ng, 2010.