**Dï¿½NG L?I TH? Vï¿½ CA T? ?? D?Y T?T **

**PH?N T? LO?I TI?NG VI?T CHO SINH VIï¿½N ??I H?C **

**TS. ****TR??NG TH? DI?M **

(*??i h?c ?ï¿½ N?ng*)

Trong gi?ng d?y nï¿½i chung vï¿½ gi?ng d?y ng? v?n nï¿½i riï¿½ng, d?y theo quan ?i?m tï¿½ch h?p ?ang lï¿½ ph??ng phï¿½p chi?m ?u th?. Gi?ng d?y theo quan ?i?m tï¿½ch h?p khï¿½ng ph? ??nh vi?c d?y cï¿½c tri th?c, k? n?ng riï¿½ng c?a t?ng phï¿½n mï¿½n. V?n ?? lï¿½ lï¿½m th? nï¿½o ph?i h?p cï¿½c tri th?c, k? n?ng thu?c t?ng phï¿½n mï¿½n th?t nhu?n nhuy?n. Nguyï¿½n t?c tï¿½ch h?p di?n ra theo nhi?u h??ng vï¿½ m?t trong nh?ng h??ng ?ï¿½ lï¿½ *giï¿½p h?p th? ki?n th?c n?i dung mï¿½n h?c khï¿½c qua n?i dung ?ang d?y vï¿½ ng??c l?i cï¿½ th? t?n d?ng ki?n th?c c?a mï¿½n h?c khï¿½c ?? giï¿½p ng??i h?c ti?p thu t?t mï¿½n h?c nï¿½y*.

Qua th?c ti?n gi?ng d?y mï¿½n Ti?ng Vi?t cho sinh viï¿½n trong nhi?u n?m, chï¿½ng tï¿½i nh?n th?y r?ng: so v?i ph?n t? v?ng, phong cï¿½ch, ph?n ng? phï¿½p lï¿½ ph?n mï¿½ ng??i gi?ng d?y khï¿½ cï¿½ th? v?a truy?n th? ??y ?? ki?n th?c, v?a cï¿½ th? ???c sinh viï¿½n ?ï¿½nh giï¿½ lï¿½ d?y h?p d?n, d?y "hay". T?t c? nh?ng ng??i nghiï¿½n c?u, gi?ng d?y ti?ng Vi?t, t? tr??c ??n nay, luï¿½n tï¿½m cï¿½c ph??ng phï¿½p ?? giï¿½p ng??i h?c khï¿½ng "s?", khï¿½ng "ngï¿½n" mï¿½n Ti?ng Vi?t mï¿½ ng??c l?i th?y yï¿½u ti?ng Vi?t vï¿½ t? ?ï¿½ s? nï¿½i vï¿½ vi?t ?ï¿½ng ti?ng Vi?t. V?i m?c ?ï¿½ch khiï¿½m t?n nh? v?y, cï¿½c tï¿½c gia ng? phï¿½p ti?ng Vi?t vï¿½ cï¿½c gi?ng viï¿½n b? mï¿½n ng? phï¿½p ?ï¿½ khï¿½ng ng?ng tï¿½m tï¿½i, ??a ra nh?ng h? th?ng bï¿½i t?p th?c hï¿½nh ng? phï¿½p nh?m nï¿½ng cao hi?u qu? gi?ng d?y. Cï¿½ th? k? m?t vï¿½i cu?n sï¿½ch bï¿½i t?p ng? phï¿½p ?ï¿½ xu?t b?n nh?: ** Th?c hï¿½nh ng? phï¿½p ti?ng Vi?t** c?a Di?p Quang Ban vï¿½ Hoï¿½ng V?n Thung, Nxb GD 1993,

**c?a ?? Th? Kim Liï¿½n, Nxb GD 2002,**

*Bï¿½i t?p ng? phï¿½p ti?ng Vi?t***c?a Phan Thi?u, Nxb GD 1998...**

*Rï¿½n luy?n ngï¿½n ng?- Bï¿½i t?p ti?ng Vi?t th?c hï¿½nh*Trï¿½n tinh th?n ti?p thu nh?ng k?t qu? c?a cï¿½c tï¿½c gi? ?i tr??c, chï¿½ng tï¿½i xin ???c "gï¿½p nh?t" vï¿½ trï¿½nh bï¿½y m?t s? ki?u bï¿½i t?p phï¿½ h?p v?i ??i t??ng gi?ng d?y c?a mï¿½nh. Trong ph?m vi bï¿½i vi?t nï¿½y, chï¿½ng tï¿½i xin ???c gi?i h?n ? ph?n "**T? lo?i ti?ng Vi?t**".

Tr??c h?t, chï¿½ng tï¿½i xï¿½c ??nh cï¿½c thï¿½ng tin v? ** ??i t??ng gi?ng d?y - ng??i h?c**: tu?i tï¿½c, th? hi?u, trï¿½nh ?? hi?u bi?t... Ng??i h?c c?a chï¿½ng tï¿½i lï¿½ sinh viï¿½n ??i h?c cï¿½ tu?i ??i t? 17 tr? lï¿½n. ? ?? tu?i nï¿½y, khï¿½ng th? khï¿½ng cï¿½ m?t ni?m say mï¿½ ??i v?i th?, nh?c. ?ï¿½y c?ng lï¿½ ?? tu?i v?a ?? ?? cï¿½ m?t v?n s?ng nh?t ??nh, m?t v?n ki?n th?c ï¿½m nh?c nh?t ??nh.

Th? hai lï¿½ ** n?i dung gi?ng d?y**. N?i dung bï¿½i gi?ng c?a chï¿½ng tï¿½i lï¿½ "

**T? lo?i ti?ng Vi?t**". Ph?m trï¿½ t? lo?i ti?ng Vi?t lï¿½ m?t v?n ?? khï¿½ ph?c t?p, vi?c phï¿½n chia t? lo?i, cï¿½c ti?u lo?i trong m?i t? lo?i lï¿½ r?t chi li d? gï¿½y c?m giï¿½c n?ng n? khi trï¿½nh bï¿½y ph?n lï¿½ thuy?t. Ti?ng Vi?t l?i thu?c lo?i hï¿½nh ngï¿½n ng? ??n l?p, t? khï¿½ng bi?n hï¿½nh nï¿½n vi?c xï¿½c ??nh t? cï¿½ch t? lo?i c?a m?t t? ph?i d?a vï¿½o c? 3 tiï¿½u chï¿½: ï¿½ ngh?a khï¿½i quï¿½t, kh? n?ng k?t h?p vï¿½ ch?c v? cï¿½ phï¿½p c?a t?. Ngh?a lï¿½ khï¿½ng th? xï¿½c ??nh t? cï¿½ch t? lo?i c?a m?t t? n?u khï¿½ng d?a vï¿½o ng? c?nh. H?n n?a, hi?n t??ng cï¿½c t? cï¿½ cï¿½ng hï¿½nh th?c ng? ï¿½m nh?ng khï¿½c nhau v? t? cï¿½ch t? lo?i trong ti?ng Vi?t lï¿½ r?t ph? bi?n. Thï¿½ng qua vi?c phï¿½n bi?t t? cï¿½ch t? lo?i c?a nh?ng t? nï¿½y, ng??i h?c s? nh?n th?c ???c m?t cï¿½ch sï¿½u s?c cï¿½c ??c tr?ng ng? phï¿½p c?a m?i t? lo?i vï¿½ ??c ?i?m ho?t ??ng c?a chï¿½ng. H? th?ng bï¿½i t?p c?ng nh?m giï¿½p sinh viï¿½n hi?u sï¿½u h?n v? hi?n t??ng chuy?n lo?i - m?t hi?n t??ng ph? bi?n trong ti?ng Vi?t.

?? cï¿½ ng? li?u ra bï¿½i t?p th?c hï¿½nh cho sinh viï¿½n, chï¿½ng tï¿½i ?ï¿½ s? d?ng cï¿½c ph?n m?m tin h?c, nghe cï¿½c ??a nh?c, ??c cï¿½c tuy?n t?p ï¿½m nh?c vï¿½ th?c hi?n ?i?u tra xï¿½ h?i h?c, l?y ï¿½ ki?n ng??i h?c nh?m xï¿½y d?ng m?t h? th?ng bï¿½i t?p phong phï¿½, ?a d?ng vï¿½ h?p d?n.

Cï¿½c ** d?ng bï¿½i t?p** mï¿½ chï¿½ng tï¿½i cho sinh viï¿½n th?c hï¿½nh bao g?m cï¿½c lo?i sau:

1. *Xï¿½c ??nh t? lo?i c?a t?t c? cï¿½c t? trong v?n b?n. *

Vï¿½ d?:* (?? vï¿½ ?ï¿½p ï¿½n)*

*- Bï¿½y gi? / thï¿½ng / m?y / r?i / h? / em? *

??i t? danh t? ??i t? phï¿½ t? tï¿½nh thï¿½i t? danh t?

*- Yï¿½u / nhau / kï¿½o / ï¿½o / ??p / chung *

??ng t? ??i t? ??ng t? danh t? ??ng t? tï¿½nh t?

(t? ** nhau** cï¿½ tï¿½c gi? cho lï¿½ ??i t? t??ng h?, cï¿½ tï¿½c gi? cho lï¿½ phï¿½ t? t??ng h?)

- *Ch? / bu?n / quay / ?i / khï¿½ng / nhï¿½n / lï¿½, / ?? /giï¿½ / quï¿½ /vi vï¿½t,/ *

dt tt ?gt pht pht ?gt dt kt dt dt tt

*diï¿½u bï¿½ng / h?i, / diï¿½u bï¿½ng / h?i. *

dt ttht dt ttht

??i v?i lo?i bï¿½i t?p nï¿½y, sinh viï¿½n ph?i v?ch ra ???c ranh gi?i gi?a cï¿½c t? r?i sau ?ï¿½ m?i xï¿½c ??nh t? lo?i cho m?i t?.

2. *Tï¿½m vï¿½ nh?t ra 1 t? lo?i ho?c ti?u lo?i t? nï¿½o ?ï¿½ trong v?n b?n.*

Vï¿½ d?:

*a) Hï¿½y g?ch chï¿½n d??i nh?ng danh t? ch? lo?i (lo?i t?) trong ?o?n v?n sau: **(?? vï¿½ ?ï¿½p ï¿½n) *

Anh cï¿½n nh?* con *?ï¿½ x?a

*,*nh?

*sï¿½ng mï¿½nh mï¿½ng thu? tr??c. Mï¿½i h??ng cï¿½y trï¿½i chï¿½n trong v??n. Anh cï¿½n nh?*

__dï¿½ng__*tre lï¿½ng*

__lu?__*,*d?a nghiï¿½ng mï¿½nh ?ong ??a, ???ng vï¿½o nhï¿½ em vï¿½ng

__hï¿½ng__*n?ng th?a. Anh cï¿½n nh?*

__tia__**?ï¿½nh x?a,**

__mï¿½i__*tr??ng x?a ï¿½ a gi?ng hï¿½t, g?i ve b?t b??m nh?ng tr?a hï¿½*

__ngï¿½i__*. (*

**Vi Nh?t T?o**, Chuy?n ?ï¿½ quï¿½ h??ng)*b) ***Li?t kï¿½ cï¿½c tï¿½nh t? cï¿½ trong ?o?n v?n trï¿½n:** (?ï¿½p ï¿½n)

*x?a, mï¿½nh mï¿½ng, chï¿½n, vï¿½ng, th?a, ï¿½ a. *

??i v?i d?ng bï¿½i t?p nï¿½y, yï¿½u c?u sinh viï¿½n ph?i cï¿½ nh?ng hi?u bi?t sï¿½u h?n v? cï¿½c ti?u lo?i t?. Mu?n ch?n ?ï¿½ng, khï¿½ng th?a, khï¿½ng thi?u thï¿½ ph?i hi?u vï¿½ phï¿½n tï¿½ch k? cï¿½c ??c ?i?m t? lo?i c?a t?.

3. ** G?i tï¿½n t? lo?i c?a t? ???c ?ï¿½nh d?u. **Vï¿½ d?:

*Hï¿½y xï¿½c ??nh t? lo?i, ti?u lo?i c?a nh?ng t? ???c g?ch chï¿½n trong nh?ng vï¿½ d? sau ?ï¿½y: **(?? vï¿½ ?ï¿½p ï¿½n) *

__a) cï¿½ __**: **

- S? **cï¿½** m?t ngï¿½y tr?i thu Hï¿½ N?i tr? l?i cho tï¿½i. S?

**m?t ngï¿½y t?ng con ???ng nh? tr? l?i cho tï¿½i. (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,**

__cï¿½__*Nh? mï¿½a thu Hï¿½ N?i*)

**cï¿½ **: thu?c nhï¿½m ??ng t? t?n t?i

- T? nay tï¿½i ?ï¿½ **cï¿½** ng??i,

**em ?i ??ng bï¿½n ??i lï¿½u lo. (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,**

__cï¿½__*?oï¿½ hoa vï¿½ th??ng*)

**cï¿½ **: thu?c nhï¿½m ??ng t? s? h?u

- N?ng **cï¿½** cï¿½n h?n ghen mï¿½i em (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*Nh? cï¿½nh v?c bay*)

**cï¿½ **: thu?c nhï¿½m phï¿½ t? ch? s? kh?ng ??nh, ph? ??nh

**b) **__cï¿½n: __

- V?n th?y bï¿½n ??i **cï¿½n** cï¿½ em. T?m lï¿½ng em nh? lï¿½ kia cï¿½n xanh. (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*V?n cï¿½ em bï¿½n ??i*)

**cï¿½n **: lï¿½ phï¿½ t? ch? s? ti?p di?n

- Em **cï¿½n** nh? hay em ?ï¿½ quï¿½n. (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*Em cï¿½n nh? hay em ?ï¿½ quï¿½n*)

**cï¿½n **: lï¿½ phï¿½ t? ch? s? ti?p di?n

- Ta **cï¿½n** em, cï¿½y bï¿½ng m? cï¿½i mï¿½a ?ï¿½ng (Phï¿½ Quang,

*Em ?i Hï¿½ N?i ph?*)

**cï¿½n **: lï¿½ ??ng t? t?n t?i

- N?ng t?t **cï¿½n **em ??ng mï¿½i ?ï¿½y. Em ??ng bï¿½n c?u ??i anh. (V? Qu?n Ph??ng-Huy Th?c,

*??i*)

**cï¿½n **: lï¿½ k?t t? ??ng l?p

c) __cï¿½ng: __

- Em **cï¿½ng **lï¿½ tung t?ng nh? loï¿½i chim ??n. Vï¿½ ?ï¿½ hï¿½t gi?a ph? nhï¿½. (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*Tu?i ??i mï¿½nh mï¿½ng*)

**cï¿½ng **: k?t t? ??ng l?p

- ?? **cï¿½ng** ngï¿½m khï¿½c ca dao quï¿½ mï¿½a (An Thuyï¿½n,

*Ca dao em vï¿½ tï¿½i*)

**cï¿½ng **: phï¿½ t? ch? s? so sï¿½nh, ??i chi?u

d) __lï¿½n: __

- ???ng ?i su?t mï¿½a, n?ng **lï¿½n** th?p ??y (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*H? tr?ng*).

**lï¿½n**: ??ng t? chuy?n ??ng

- Em ??ng **lï¿½n** g?i m?a vï¿½o h? (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*G?i tï¿½n b?n mï¿½a*).

**lï¿½n **: phï¿½ t? ch? h??ng

e) __?i __

- Em **?i** qua chuy?n ?ï¿½ th?y con tr?ng ?ang n?m ng? (

**Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n**,

*Bi?t ?ï¿½u ngu?n c?i*).

__?i: __**??ng t? chuy?n ??ng **

**- **Ng?** ?i **em, tï¿½c giï¿½ thï¿½i bay! (

**Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n**,

*Bi?t ?ï¿½u ngu?n c?i*)

__?i: __**tï¿½nh thï¿½i t? **

**- **M?t ch?t tï¿½m nhau r?i l?i quay** ?i (Phan Th? Thanh Nhï¿½n, **

*H??ng th?m*)

__?i: __**phï¿½ t? ch? h??ng **

- Thu** ?i **cho lï¿½ vï¿½ng bay

**(?oï¿½n Chu?n-T? Linh,**

*Lï¿½ ?? muï¿½n chi?u*).

- __?i: __**??ng t? chuy?n ??ng **

Chï¿½ng tï¿½i phï¿½n tï¿½ch hi?n t??ng cï¿½ng m?t hï¿½nh th?c ng? ï¿½m nh?ng do cï¿½ ï¿½ ngh?a khï¿½i quï¿½t khï¿½c nhau, do ch?c n?ng ng? phï¿½p trong c?m t?, ho?c do ch?c v? cï¿½ phï¿½p trong cï¿½u khï¿½c nhau mï¿½ cï¿½c t? s? cï¿½ t? cï¿½ch t? lo?i khï¿½c nhau. Th? so sï¿½nh:** lï¿½n^{1} **trong

**"n?ng lï¿½n"**vï¿½

**trong "em ??ng lï¿½n". Ta th?y**

*lï¿½n*^{2}**mang ï¿½ ngh?a ch? quï¿½ trï¿½nh,ho?t ??ng, lï¿½ v? ng? tr? l?i cho cï¿½u h?i:"n?ng nh? th? nï¿½o, n?ng lï¿½m gï¿½" nï¿½n nï¿½ lï¿½ ??ng t?;**

*lï¿½n*^{1}**mang ngh?a ch? h??ng, b? ngh?a cho ??ng t? "??ng" vï¿½ ?ï¿½ cï¿½ "??ng" lï¿½ ??ng t? lï¿½m v? ng? chï¿½nh, v?y**

*lï¿½n*^{2}**lï¿½ phï¿½ t? ch? h??ng...**

*lï¿½n*^{2}4. *Tr?c nghi?m (ch?n ?ï¿½p ï¿½n ?ï¿½ng) v? t? cï¿½ch t? lo?i c?a t? ???c ?ï¿½nh*** d?u**. Vï¿½ d?:

* Hï¿½y xï¿½c ??nh t? lo?i c?a t? ???c g?ch chï¿½n:* (?? vï¿½ ?ï¿½p ï¿½n)*

- Ngï¿½y xuï¿½n b??c chï¿½n ng??i r?t nh?, mï¿½a xuï¿½n ?ï¿½ **qua** bao gi?

**(Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n**,

*?ï¿½m th?y ta lï¿½ thï¿½c ??*).

**a) ??ng t?; b) phï¿½ t?; c) tï¿½nh t?; d) k?t t? **

- M?t hï¿½m b??c **qua** thï¿½nh ph? l?, thï¿½nh ph? ?ï¿½ ?i ng? tr?a

**(Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n**,

*?ï¿½m th?y ta lï¿½ thï¿½c ??*)

**a) ??ng t?; b) phï¿½ t?; c) tï¿½nh t?; d) k?t t? **

-Ta lï¿½ ai mï¿½ cï¿½n khi r?i l?, ta lï¿½ ai mï¿½ cï¿½n** tr?n gian **th? (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*Tï¿½i ?i, ??ng tuy?t v?ng*)

**a) ??ng t?; b) danh t?; c) tï¿½nh t?; d) c? 3 ??u sai **

- M?a ngoï¿½i sï¿½ng bay, l?i ca anh **nh?** n?i lï¿½ng anh ?ï¿½y (Tr?nh Cung - Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*Cu?i cï¿½ng cho m?t tï¿½nh yï¿½u*).

**a) ??ng t?; b) phï¿½ t?; c) tï¿½nh t?; d) c? 3 ??u sai **

- Con sï¿½ng **?ï¿½u** cï¿½ ng?, ngï¿½y kia tr?ng s? giï¿½ (Tr?nh Cï¿½ng S?n,

*Bi?t ?ï¿½u ngu?n c?i*).

**a) ??ng t?; b) tr? t?; c) ??i t?; d) c? 3 ??u sai **

Chï¿½ng tï¿½i lï¿½ gi?i nh?ng tr??ng h?p cï¿½ng hï¿½nh th?c ng? ï¿½m nh?ng cï¿½ nh?ng t? cï¿½ch t? lo?i khï¿½c nhau trong nh?ng ng? c?nh khï¿½c nhau, lï¿½ gi?i cï¿½c tr??ng h?p chuy?n di t? lo?i.

B??c ??u ??a h? th?ng bï¿½i t?p nï¿½y ï¿½p d?ng vï¿½o gi?ng d?y cho sinh viï¿½n ??i h?c Ngo?i ng? ?ï¿½ N?ng vï¿½ sinh viï¿½n Khoa Ng? V?n ??i h?c S? ph?m ?ï¿½ N?ng, chï¿½ng tï¿½i ?ï¿½ th?y cï¿½ hi?u qu? rï¿½ r?t. ?a s? sinh viï¿½n t? ra r?t h?ng thï¿½ khi lï¿½m bï¿½i t?p vï¿½ h? t? giï¿½c ti?p thu cï¿½c ki?n th?c lï¿½ thuy?t ?? lï¿½m t?t bï¿½i t?p. Ng??c l?i, vi?c lï¿½m th?t nhi?u bï¿½i t?p ?ï¿½ giï¿½p sinh viï¿½n hi?u sï¿½u h?n cï¿½c ki?n th?c v?n khï¿½ khan c?a ng? phï¿½p h?c.

Chï¿½ng tï¿½i mong mu?n s? xï¿½y d?ng m?t ch??ng trï¿½nh ph?n m?m tin h?c v? bï¿½i t?p tr?c nghi?m ti?ng Vi?t. Trong m?t kho?ng th?i gian nh?t ??nh, sinh viï¿½n ph?i hoï¿½n thï¿½nh s? l??ng cï¿½u h?i tr?c nghi?m nh?t ??nh vï¿½ ???c mï¿½y tï¿½nh ch?m ?i?m. Sinh viï¿½n cï¿½ th? bi?t cï¿½u tr? l?i c?a mï¿½nh lï¿½ ?ï¿½ng vï¿½ t?i sao ?ï¿½ng, sai vï¿½ t?i sao sai. V?i lo?i bï¿½i t?p nï¿½y, sinh viï¿½n v?a ???c nï¿½ng cao ki?n th?c ngï¿½n ng?, nï¿½ng cao kh? n?ng s? d?ng ngï¿½n ng? v?a ???c rï¿½n luy?n, t?ng c??ng ki?n th?c v? tin h?c, cï¿½ ph?n x? nh?y bï¿½n nh?m cï¿½ th? gi?i quy?t t?t h?n cï¿½c v?n ?? x?y ra trong cu?c s?ng. ?ï¿½y c?ng chï¿½nh lï¿½ m?t cï¿½ch ?? th?c hi?n nguyï¿½n t?c tï¿½ch h?p trong gi?ng d?y.

Nh?ng gï¿½ chï¿½ng tï¿½i trï¿½nh bï¿½y trong khuï¿½n kh? bï¿½i vi?t nï¿½y ch? cï¿½ tï¿½nh gi?i thi?u, nï¿½u v?n ??. Mu?n th?c hi?n t?t nh?ng ï¿½ t??ng trï¿½n, chï¿½ng tï¿½i cï¿½n ph?i ??u t? nhi?u cï¿½ng s?c h?n.

Tï¿½I LI?U THAM KH?O

1. **Di?p Quang Ban, Hoï¿½ng V?n Thung **(1993), *Th?c hï¿½nh ng? phï¿½p ti?ng Vi?t*, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, Hï¿½ N?i.

2. **Di?p Quang Ban, Hoï¿½ng V?n Thung **(1996), *Ng? phï¿½p ti?ng Vi?t*, Nxb Giï¿½o d?c, Hï¿½ N?i.

3. **?? Th? Kim Liï¿½n **(1999),* Ng? phï¿½p ti?ng Vi?t, *Nxb Giï¿½o d?c.

4. **?? Th? Kim Liï¿½n **(1999),* Bï¿½i t?p ng? phï¿½p ti?ng Vi?t, *Nxb Giï¿½o d?c.

5. **Phan Thi?u (1998), ***Rï¿½n luy?n ngï¿½n ng?- Bï¿½i t?p th?c hï¿½nh, *Nxb Giï¿½o d?c.